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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Effects of Dystocia on Cold Tolerance in Newborn Beef Calves

Authors
item Bellows, Robert
item Lammoglia, Miguel - BOVAGEN
item Geary, Thomas
item Funston, Rick - MONTANA EXTENSION SERVICE

Submitted to: Western Section of Animal Science Proceedings
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: June 1, 1999
Publication Date: June 1, 1999
Citation: BELLOWS, R.A., LAMMOGLIA, M.A., GEARY, T.W., FUNSTON, R.N. EFFECTS OF DYSTOCIA ON COLD TOLERANCE IN NEWBORN BEEF CALVES. WESTERN SECTION OF ANIMAL SCIENCE PROCEEDINGS. 1999. v. 50. p. 115-118.

Interpretive Summary: Start of Stage II labor was determined in crossbred, primiparous heifers. If stage II was not completed within 2 h, delivery was completed with obstetrical assistance. Parturitions were scored (CDS): 1, no assist. (n=8); 2, minor assist. (n=7); 3, with a mechanical calf puller (n=5); 4, cesarean section (n=6). Within 30 min after birth and before nursing, calves were bled and rectal temperature (RT) measured, weighed, fed 38 deg C pooled colostrum, muzzled to prevent suckling, and placed back with their dam in a heated (22 deg C) barn. At 4 h of age (birth = 0 h) the calf was removed from their dam, an indwelling jugular catheter inserted, a blood sample and RT obtained. Calves remained at 22 deg C for 1 h. At 5 h of age calves were placed in a 0 deg C room for 140 min; blood samples and RT were obtained every 10 or 20 min. A shivering score (1 = no shivering; 2 = shivering in muscles, back, and legs; 3 = intense shivering in muscles of back, legs, and face) was given at each sampling time. Blood was analyzed for glucose (Glu) and cortisol (Cort). RT: changed over time (P<.01); was higher (P<.01) in calves with CDS 1, 2, and 4 (39.0, 39.3, and 39.0 +/- .02 deg C, resp.) than calves with CDS 3 (38.2 +/- .02 deg C). Glu: changed over time (P<.01); was higher (P<.01) in calves with CDS 3 (110.1 +/- 1.6 mg/dL) than CDS 1, 2, or 4 (77.2, 86.4, & 88.9 +/- 1.3 mg/dL, resp.). Shivering scores changed over time (P<.01) but were not affected by CDS. Cort: affected by time (P<.01); was higher in calves with CDS 1 (80.0 +/- 1.7 ng/mL) than CDS 2, 3, or 4 (62.7, 58.2, & 57.7 +/- 2.0 ng/mL, resp.). We conclude severe dystocia reduced calf RT and serum Cort, and increased serum Glu. These changes tended to be reversed by cesarean delivery.

Technical Abstract: Start of Stage II labor was determined in crossbred, primiparous heifers. If stage II was not completed within 2 h, delivery was completed with obstetrical assistance. Parturitions were scored (CDS): 1, no assist. (n=8); 2, minor assist. (n=7); 3, with a mechanical calf puller (n=5); 4, cesarean section (n=6). Within 30 min after birth and before nursing, calves were bled and rectal temperature (RT) measured, weighed, fed 38 deg C pooled colostrum, muzzled to prevent suckling, and placed back with their dam in a heated (22 deg C) barn. At 4 h of age (birth = 0 h) the calf was removed from their dam, an indwelling jugular catheter inserted, a blood sample and RT obtained. Calves remained at 22 deg C for 1 h. At 5 h of age calves were placed in a 0 deg C room for 140 min; blood samples and RT were obtained every 10 or 20 min. A shivering score (1 = no shivering; 2 = shivering in muscles, back, and legs; 3 = intense shivering in muscles of back, legs, and face) was given at each sampling time. Blood was analyzed for glucose (Glu) and cortisol (Cort). RT: changed over time (P<.01); was higher (P<.01) in calves with CDS 1, 2, and 4 (39.0, 39.3, and 39.0 +/- .02 deg C, resp.) than calves with CDS 3 (38.2 +/- .02 deg C). Glu: changed over time (P<.01); was higher (P<.01) in calves with CDS 3 (110.1 +/- 1.6 mg/dL) than CDS 1, 2, or 4 (77.2, 86.4, & 88.9 +/- 1.3 mg/dL, resp.). Shivering scores changed over time (P<.01) but were not affected by CDS. Cort: affected by time (P<.01); was higher in calves with CDS 1 (80.0 +/- 1.7 ng/mL) than CDS 2, 3, or 4 (62.7, 58.2, & 57.7 +/- 2.0 ng/mL, resp.). We conclude severe dystocia reduced calf RT and serum Cort, and increased serum Glu. These changes tended to be reversed by cesarean delivery.

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