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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: EPIDEMIOLOGY, NUTRITION AND PROBLEMS OF AGING

Location: Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging

Title: Yogurt consumption is associated with better diet quality and metabolic profile in American men and women

Authors
item Wang, Hullen -
item Livingston, Kara -
item Fox, Caroline -
item Meigs, James -
item Jacques, Paul -

Submitted to: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: November 14, 2012
Publication Date: January 1, 2013
Citation: Wang, H., Livingston, K.A., Fox, C.S., Meigs, J.B., Jacques, P.F. 2013. Yogurt consumption is associated with better diet quality and metabolic profile in American men and women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 33(1):18-26.

Interpretive Summary: Low-fat dairy products may be beneficial for health, but few studies have specifically focused on yogurt. We examined whether yogurt consumption was associated with better dietary patterns, diet quality, and metabolic profile. This cross-sectional study included the adults (n=6526) participating in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring (Exam 7, 1998-2001) and Third Generation (Exam 1, 2002-2005) cohorts. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary intake, and the Dietary Guidelines Adherence Index was used as a measure of diet quality. Standardized clinical exams and laboratory tests were conducted. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the associations of yogurt consumption with dietary patterns derived by cluster analysis, diet quality, and levels of metabolic factors. Approximately 64% of women (versus 41% of men) were yogurt consumers (i.e. consumed >0 servings/week). Both male and female yogurt consumers had a dietary pattern featuring higher intakes of reduced fat milk, fruits and vegetables, seafood, whole grains, and red wine. Adjusted for demographic and lifestyle factors and diet quality, yogurt consumers, compared to non-consumers, had higher potassium intakes (difference=0.12g/day), and were 47%, 55%, 48%, 38% and 34% less likely to have inadequate intakes (based on Dietary Reference Intake) of vitamins B2 and B12, calcium, magnesium, and zinc, respectively (all P is less than or equal to0.001). Additionally, yogurt consumption was associated with lower levels of circulating triglycerides, glucose, and lower systolic blood pressure and insulin resistance (all P<0.05). Yogurt, as a low-fat, nutrient dense dairy product is a good source of several micronutrients, and may help to improve diet quality and maintain metabolic well-being as part of a healthy dietary pattern.

Technical Abstract: Low-fat dairy products may be beneficial for health, but few studies have specifically focused on yogurt. We examined whether yogurt consumption was associated with better dietary patterns, diet quality, and metabolic profile. This cross-sectional study included the adults (n=6526) participating in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring (Exam 7, 1998-2001) and Third Generation (Exam 1, 2002-2005) cohorts. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary intake, and the Dietary Guidelines Adherence Index was used as a measure of diet quality. Standardized clinical exams and laboratory tests were conducted. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the associations of yogurt consumption with dietary patterns derived by cluster analysis, diet quality, and levels of metabolic factors. Approximately 64% of women (versus 41% of men) were yogurt consumers (i.e. consumed >0 servings/week). Both male and female yogurt consumers had a dietary pattern featuring higher intakes of reduced fat milk, fruits and vegetables, seafood, whole grains, and red wine. Adjusted for demographic and lifestyle factors and diet quality, yogurt consumers, compared to non-consumers, had higher potassium intakes (difference=0.12g/day), and were 47%, 55%, 48%, 38% and 34% less likely to have inadequate intakes (based on Dietary Reference Intake) of vitamins B2 and B12, calcium, magnesium, and zinc, respectively (all P is less than or equal to0.001). Additionally, yogurt consumption was associated with lower levels of circulating triglycerides, glucose, and lower systolic blood pressure and insulin resistance (all P<0.05). Yogurt, as a low-fat, nutrient dense dairy product is a good source of several micronutrients, and may help to improve diet quality and maintain metabolic well-being as part of a healthy dietary pattern.

Last Modified: 9/1/2014
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