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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: VINEYARD MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AND THE QUALITY OF GRAPES AND GRAPE PRODUCTS IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

Location: Horticultural Crops Research

Title: Metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids and their tartaric acid esters by Brettanomyces and Pediococcus in red wines.

Authors
item Schopp, Lauren -
item Lee, Jungmin
item Edwards, Charles -

Submitted to: American Society of Enology and Viticulture Annual Meeting Abstracts
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: September 30, 2013
Publication Date: September 30, 2013
Citation: Schopp, L.M., Lee, J., Edwards, C.G. 2013. Metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids and their tartaric acid esters by Brettanomyces and Pediococcus in red wines. American Society of Enology and Viticulture Annual Meeting Abstracts. American Society of Enology and Viticulture (ASEV) Annual Meeting.

Interpretive Summary: Caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids and their corresponding tartaric acid esters (caftaric, coutaric, and fertaric, respectively) are found in wines in varying concentrations. While Brettanomyces and Pediococcus can utilize the free acids, it is not known whether they can metabolize the corresponding tartaric acid esters. Syrah, Pinot noir, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Merlot wines were inoculated with one of four strains of Brettanomyces bruxellensis (B5, I1a, E1, or B1b) at 105–106 cfu/mL. In a second experiment, Pinot noir and Syrah wines were inoculated with either strain of Pediococcus parvulus (WS 7C or WS 29A) at 106–107 cfu/mL, and after two weeks, half of the wines were inocu- lated with B. bruxellensis E1 at 105 cfu/mL. Wine samples were fractioned by C18 solid-phase extraction columns with caffeic, caftaric, p-coumaric, coutaric, and ferulic acids analyzed by HPLC-DAD. B. bruxellensis B5 populations declined to less than 30 cfu/mL and metabolized 12% or less of the caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids. Conversely, strains I1a, E1, and B1b entered exponential growth and reached populations in excess of 107 cfu/mL. Additionally, the three strains metabolized 43–71% of the caffeic acid, 87–98% of the p-coumaric acid, and 37–78% of the ferulic acid. However, strain I1a exponential growth and the onset of the free hydroxycinnamic acids utilization were delayed one to three weeks compared to strains E1 and B1b. None of the B. bruxellensis strains were able to metabolize the hydroxycinnamic acid tartaric acids esters. P. parvulus WS 7C and WS 29A populations slowly declined one log. Both strains were able to convert 25–38% of the caffeic acid and 13–20% of the p-coumaric acid. Neither strain of P. parvulus utilized the ferulic acid or hydrolyzed the hydroxycinnamic acid tartaric acid esters. Both B. bruxellensis and P. parvulus demonstrated strain and wine dependent metabolism of the free hydroxycinnamic acids.

Technical Abstract: Caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids and their corresponding tartaric acid esters (caftaric, coutaric, and fertaric, respectively) are found in wines in varying concentrations. While Brettanomyces and Pediococcus can utilize the free acids, it is not known whether they can metabolize the corresponding tartaric acid esters. Syrah, Pinot noir, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Merlot wines were inoculated with one of four strains of Brettanomyces bruxellensis (B5, I1a, E1, or B1b) at 105–106 cfu/mL. In a second experiment, Pinot noir and Syrah wines were inoculated with either strain of Pediococcus parvulus (WS 7C or WS 29A) at 106–107 cfu/mL, and after two weeks, half of the wines were inocu- lated with B. bruxellensis E1 at 105 cfu/mL. Wine samples were fractioned by C18 solid-phase extraction columns with caffeic, caftaric, p-coumaric, coutaric, and ferulic acids analyzed by HPLC-DAD. B. bruxellensis B5 populations declined to less than 30 cfu/mL and metabolized 12% or less of the caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids. Conversely, strains I1a, E1, and B1b entered exponential growth and reached populations in excess of 107 cfu/mL. Additionally, the three strains metabolized 43–71% of the caffeic acid, 87–98% of the p-coumaric acid, and 37–78% of the ferulic acid. However, strain I1a exponential growth and the onset of the free hydroxycinnamic acids utilization were delayed one to three weeks compared to strains E1 and B1b. None of the B. bruxellensis strains were able to metabolize the hydroxycinnamic acid tartaric acids esters. P. parvulus WS 7C and WS 29A populations slowly declined one log. Both strains were able to convert 25–38% of the caffeic acid and 13–20% of the p-coumaric acid. Neither strain of P. parvulus utilized the ferulic acid or hydrolyzed the hydroxycinnamic acid tartaric acid esters. Both B. bruxellensis and P. parvulus demonstrated strain and wine dependent metabolism of the free hydroxycinnamic acids.

Last Modified: 9/1/2014
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