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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: Integrated Drainage Water & Agronomic Mgmt Strategies for Environmental Protection & Sustainable Agricultural Production in the Midwest U.S.

Location: Soil Drainage Research

Title: Profiling USGA putting greens using GPR - an as-built surveying method

item Freeland, Robert -
item Allred, Barry
item Sorochan, John -

Submitted to: Symposium Proceedings
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: August 5, 2013
Publication Date: March 5, 2013
Citation: Freeland, R.S., Allred, B.J., Sorochan, J.C. 2013. Profiling USGA putting greens using GPR - an as-built surveying method.Proceedings of the 2013 Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems. Environmental and Engineering Geophysical Society, March 17-21, 2013, Denver, Colorado. 10 pages.

Technical Abstract: Putting greens installed using the United States Golf Association (USGS) specifications have a subsurface infrastructure constructed to exacting standards. It may be difficult to discern those drainage systems that possess installation flaws, as some flaws may not be readily obvious as their being integral to the buried infrastructure. Drainage flaws can influence the agronomics and ultimately the playability of the putting surface. Once discovered, repairs to flawed drainage systems can be both laborious and expensive. This study introduces a non-intrusive survey protocol combining ground penetrating radar and real-time kinematic positioning that produces "as built" subsurface maps of putting greens constructed to USGA specifications. Three-dimensional maps highlighting conformity to the specifications overlay aerial imagery of the putting green locales using Google Earth Pro. Two case studies present a subsurface profiling of USGA specification greens in Tennessee and Ohio. The protocol non-intrusively identified drainage infrastructure features for tile slope and spacing, and for thickness of root-zone mixture and gravel. With regard to USGA green specifications, the Tennessee case study site adhered to tile spacing, but failed regarding tile slope and root-zone mixture depth specifications.

Last Modified: 9/1/2015
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