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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: Integrated Pest Management for Insect Pests of Horticultural Crops

Location: Horticultural Crops Research

Title: Seasonal phenology of Amphorophora agathonica (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and spread of viruses in red raspberry in Washington

Authors
item Lightle, Danielle -
item Quito-Avila, Diego -
item Martin, Robert
item Lee, Jana

Submitted to: Environmental Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: December 4, 2013
Publication Date: April 15, 2014
Citation: Lightle, D.M., Quito-Avila, D., Martin, R.R., Lee, J.C. 2014. Seasonal phenology of Amphorophora agathonica (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and spread of viruses in red raspberry in Washington. Environmental Entomology. 43:467-473.

Interpretive Summary: The large raspberry aphid (Amphorophora agathonica) transmits viruses in red raspberry in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. To better understand the biology of the aphid, we estimated the minimal temperature needed for developmental and studied the seasonal activity of this aphid in commercial fields in northern Washington state. Additionally, we monitored the spread of raspberry viruses (Raspberry latent virus, RpLV, and Raspberry leaf mottle virus, RLMV) to determine how rapidly fields became infected and whether there was a relationship between aphid presence and infection. The minimal temperature is 2.7°C. In the field, wingless and winged aphid populations began rapidly increasing in June and peaked around early July. RLMV spread rapidly, with 30 to 60% of plants in four different commercial fields testing positive after three growing seasons. There was no discernible pattern between the presence or abundance of aphids based on 10 leaves sampled per plant location, and the odds of that plant becoming infected with RLMV.

Technical Abstract: Amphorophora agathonica (Hottes) is the primary vector of aphid transmitted viruses in red raspberry in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. To better understand the biology of the aphid, we estimated the lower developmental threshold and studied the seasonal activity of A. agathonica in commercial fields in northern Washington state. Additionally, we monitored the spread of raspberry viruses (Raspberry latent virus, RpLV, and Raspberry leaf mottle virus, RLMV) to determine how rapidly fields became infected and whether there was a relationship between aphid presence and infection. The lower developmental threshold of A. agathonica was estimated to be 2.7°C. In the field, apterous and alate aphid populations began rapidly increasing at approximately 800 growing degree days (GDD) and peaked at 1050 GDD. RLMV spread rapidly, with 30 to 60% of plants in four different commercial fields testing positive after three growing seasons. There was no discernible relationship between the presence or abundance of aphids based on 10 leaves sampled per plant location, and the odds of that plant becoming infected with RLMV.

Last Modified: 11/28/2014
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