|Liu, Jen-Fang -|
|Liu, Yen-Hua -|
|Chen, Chiao-Ming -|
|Chang, Wen-Hsin -|
|Chen, C-Y Oliver -|
Submitted to: European Journal of Nutrition
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: June 5, 2012
Publication Date: April 1, 2013
Citation: Liu, J., Liu, Y., Chen, C., Chang, W., Chen, C. 2013. The effect of almonds on inflammation and oxidative stress in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized crossover controlled feeding trial. European Journal of Nutrition. 52:927-935. Interpretive Summary: Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are at a greater risk for a myriad of other health complications including cardiovascular disease (CVD), certain cancers, retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy, and gallstone disease than those who do not have diabetes. Lifestyle modification along with medication has been recommended to be a cornerstone for the disease management in T2DM patients. Lifestyle modification normally consisting of sustainable changes in dietary habits and physical activity not only help the regulation of blood sugar, but also may prevent or delay the onset of developing chronic complications, especially CVD, by improving lipid profile and decreasing blood pressure, inflammation, and oxidative stress. A myriad of foods could be incorporated into diets for those who are at increased risk for CVD, e.g., soy, fish oil, vegetables, and fruits. Recent clinical evidence shows almonds could be part of a heart healthy diet because almond consumption is associated with better outcomes in obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and hyperglycemia. We conducted a controlled feeding trial to examine whether an almond consumption of 56 grams per day for 4 weeks would lessen inflammation and oxidative stress in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with mild hyperlipidemia. Almonds at were added to the control diet to replace approximately 20% of total daily calorie intake. Our results suggested that the incorporation of almonds into a healthy diet could ameliorate inflammation and oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Technical Abstract: Almond consumption is associated with ameliorations in obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and hyperglycemia. The hypothesis of this 12-wk randomized, crossover, controlled feeding trial was that almond consumption would ameliorate inflammation and oxidative stress in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (9 M, 11 F; 58 yr; BMI: 26 kg/m2) with mild hyperlipidemia. After a 2-wk run-in period, the patients were assigned to either a control NCEP step II diet (control diet) or almond diet for 4 wks with a 2-wk washout period between alternative diets. Almonds approximately at 56 g/d were added to the control diet to replace 20% of total daily calorie intake. As compared to the control diet, the almond diet decreased IL-6 by a median 10.3% [95% confidence intervals (CI): 5.2, 12.6%], CRP by a median 10.3% (-24.1, 40.5), and TNF-alpha by a median 15.7% (-0.3, 29.9). The almond diet also decreased plasma protein carbonyl by a median 28.2% (4.7, 38.2) as compared to the C diet but did not alter plasma malondialdehyde. The A diet enhanced the resistance of LDL against Cu2+-induced oxidation by a median 16.3% (7.4, 44.3) as compared to the C diet. Serum intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular adhesion molecule-1 were not changed by both diets. Our results suggested that incorporation of almonds into a healthy diet could ameliorate inflammation and oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.