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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: Integrated Pest Management for Insect Pests of Horticultural Crops

Location: Horticultural Crops Research

Title: Evaluating Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) immunomarking for mark-capture research

Authors
item Klick, Jimmy -
item Lee, Jana
item Hagler, James
item Bruck, Denny -
item Yang, Wei -

Submitted to: Environmental Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: March 31, 2014
Publication Date: May 1, 2014
Citation: Klick, J., Lee, J.C., Hagler, J.R., Bruck, D.J., Yang, W.Q. 2014. Evaluating Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) immunomarking for mark-capture research. Environmental Entomology. 152:31-41.

Interpretive Summary: Spotted wing drosophila, or Drosophila suzukii, readily utilizes wild Himalayan blackberry as a host. The fly in these wild field margins are suspected to invade berry and stone fruit crops . This study was conducted to determine the persistence of topically sprayed protein marks including chicken egg whites, soy milk and cow milk. A second study evaluated the persistence of the protein marks on blackberry leaves, and third study the rate at which flies would pick up the protein from blackberry leaves up to 14 days after application. All flies and leaves were tested for the presence of the protein marks using protein-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Egg, milk, and soy proteins were retained on 94, 49, and 25% of the topically marked D. suzukii, respectively, throughout the 14-day study period. Egg persisted on 100% of treated leaves for 14 days, regardless of environmental conditions. At least 50% of flies exposed residually to egg protein treated leaves were marked for 3 days, regardless of exposure time and environmental conditions. Flies exposed to milk and soy treated leaves did not consistently pick up the protein mark. Overall, the egg protein performed the best in the laboratory and semi-field studies under a variety of environmental conditions and exposure times.

Technical Abstract: Drosophila suzukii Matsumura readily utilizes wild Himalayan blackberry, Rubus armeniacus Focke as a host and is suspected of invading berry and stone fruit crops from field margins containing this invasive weed. This study was conducted to determine: (1) protein mark (10% chicken egg whites [albumin protein], 20% soy milk [soy trypsin inhibitor protein] and 20% milk [bovine casein protein]) persistence on topically sprayed D. suzukii, (2) protein persistence on blackberry leaves, and (3) D. suzukii acquisition of protein after exposure to marked blackberry leaves for up to 14 days after application. All flies and leaves were assayed for the presence of the protein marks using protein-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Egg albumin, milk casein, and soy trypsin proteins were retained on 94, 49, and 25% of the topically marked D. suzukii, respectively, throughout the 14-day study period. Egg protein persisted on 100% of treated leaves for 14 days, regardless of environmental conditions. At least 50% of flies exposed residually to egg protein treated leaves were marked for 3 days, regardless of exposure time and environmental conditions. However, increasing fly exposure time to the treated leaves in April and June appeared to improve protein mark acquisition. Acquisition of protein by flies from the treated leaves was inconsistent for milk casein and poor for the soy trypsin inhibitor, despite detectable levels on treated leaves. Chicken egg albumin had the longest and most consistent persistence on flies, leaves, and flies exposed to leaves in laboratory and semi-field studies under a variety of environmental conditions and exposure times. No adverse effects on D. suzukii behavior or longevity were observed in any of the treatments.

Last Modified: 12/18/2014
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