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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: DEVELOPMENT & EVALUATION OF BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AGENTS FOR INVASIVE SPECIES THREATENING THE EVERGLADES & OTHER NATURAL AND MANANGED SYSTEMS

Location: Invasive Plant Research Laboratory

Title: Australian Pine, Casuarina equisetifolia L. Management Plan for Florida

Authors
item Pernas, T -
item Wheeler, Gregory
item Langeland, K. -
item Allen, E -
item Purcell, M -
item Taylor, J -

Submitted to: Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: May 21, 2013
Publication Date: May 25, 2013
Repository URL: http://www.fleppc.org/Manage_Plans/Casuarinamgmntplan_FINAL-05-13-13.pdf
Citation: Pernas, T., Wheeler, G.S., Langeland, K., Allen, E., Purcell, M., Taylor, J. 2013. Australian Pine, Casuarina equisetifolia L. Management Plan for Florida. Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council. p 1-44.

Interpretive Summary: Australian pine is a fast growing tree native to Australia, Southeast Asia, India, Bangladesh and the Pacific Islands that has been introduced to tropical areas throughout the world as an ornamental; to stabilize sand dunes; to form windbreaks around canals, roads, houses, and agricultural fields; and for reforestation due to its capacity to thrive in poor and saline soils. As a result of these intentional introductions, Australian pine has become a highly invasive species and is found along most humid tropical or sub-tropical beaches around the world. In Florida, Australian pine occurs predominantly south of Orlando as it is sensitive to extended periods of freezing temperatures. Australian pine produces copious amounts of wind and water dispersed seeds and is able to colonize a wide variety of habitats including coastal areas, pinelands, disturbed sites and higher areas of elevation in the Everglades. The fast growth, prolific seeding and thick litter accumulation of Australian pine impedes the establishment of native plant species and their associated herbivores, disrupting natural processes. Australian pine readily establishes on sandy shores which leads to increased beach erosion and interference with the nesting of endangered sea turtles and crocodiles. This review provides an ecological description of the invaded areas and recommendations on chemical and biological control of this invasive species.

Technical Abstract: Australian pine (Casuarina equisetifolia) is a fast growing tree native to Australia, Southeast Asia, India, Bangladesh and the Pacific Islands that has been introduced to tropical areas throughout the world as an ornamental; to stabilize sand dunes; to form windbreaks around canals, roads, houses, and agricultural fields; and for reforestation due to its capacity to thrive in poor and saline soils. As a result of these intentional introductions, Australian pine has become a highly invasive species and is found along most humid tropical or sub-tropical beaches around the world. In Florida, Australian pine occurs predominantly south of Orlando as it is sensitive to extended periods of freezing temperatures. Australian pine produces copious amounts of wind and water dispersed seeds and is able to colonize a wide variety of habitats including coastal areas, pinelands, disturbed sites and higher areas of elevation in the Everglades. The fast growth, prolific seeding and thick litter accumulation of Australian pine impedes the establishment of native plant species and their associated herbivores, disrupting natural processes. Australian pine readily establishes on sandy shores which leads to increased beach erosion and interference with the nesting of endangered sea turtles and crocodiles.

Last Modified: 9/1/2014
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