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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: Management of Temperate-Adapted Fruit, Nut, and Specialty Crop Genetic Resources and Associated Information

Location: National Clonal Germplasm Repository (Corvallis, Oregon)

Title: Cryopreservation of native Kazakhstan apricot (Prunus armeniaca L) seeds and embryonic axes

Authors
item Kovalchuk, Irina -
item Turdiev, Timur -
item Mukhitdinova, Zinat -
item Frovlow, Sergey -
item Reed, Barbara

Submitted to: CryoLetters
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: October 29, 2013
Publication Date: March 15, 2014
Citation: Kovalchuk, I., Turdiev, T., Mukhitdinova, Z., Frovlow, S., Reed, B.M. 2014. Cryopreservation of native Kazakhstan apricot (Prunus armeniaca L) seeds and embryonic axes. CryoLetters. 35:85-89.

Interpretive Summary: Preserving the genetic diversity of Central Asia includes conserving wild apricots found in the foothills of several mountain ranges. Apricot seeds have a short storage life, so developing ways to cryopreserve wild populations is important for conserving the genetic diversity. This study compared several techniques for storing wild apricot seeds in liquid nitrogen (-320 F). Germination of scarified whole seed varied from 63% to 90% after freezing and was generally better after drying the seeds. Embryos removed from seed had only 33% germination after liquid nitrogen exposure. When the growing points of the seed (axes) were isolated and dried they germinated at 86% to 100% . Moisture content of three sizes of whole seed, embryos and isolated axes varied with the seed size and shape. The optimum axis cryopreservation recovery varied with moisture content rather than the seed size.

Technical Abstract: Preserving the genetic diversity of Central Asia includes conserving wild apricots found in the foothills of several mountain ranges. These plants include primitive and genetically diverse populations with important characteristics for crop improvement. Apricot seeds have a short storage life, so cryopreservation of the seeds of wild populations is important for conserving the genetic diversity. This study compared several cryopreservation techniques on wild-collected seeds, isolated embryos and embryonic axes to determine a suitable protocol for long-term storage. Germination of scarified whole seed from the ‘Jungar’ population of Prunus armeniaca varied from 63% to 90% after 1 h in liquid nitrogen and was generally better after drying to 7% moisture content (MC) than at the original 14% MC. Embryos (axes and endosperm at 4% MC) from stratified seed had only 33% germination after liquid nitrogen exposure. Isolated embryonic axes from non-stratified seed germinated at 86% to 100% following drying to 4% or 7% MC. Examination of three seed sizes of non-stratified seed determined that the MC of whole seed, embryos and isolated axes varied with the seed size and shape. Whole seeds and embryos decreased in MC as size decreased, however, the axis MC did not. The medium-size seed MC was more evenly distributed between axis and endosperm than in the larger or smaller samples. The optimum axis cryopreservation recovery varied with axis MC (4% to 8%) rather than the seed size. Cryopreservation of axes using vitrification protocols designed for shoot tips, produced germination similar to or lower than the seed and axis drying techniques.

Last Modified: 10/22/2014
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