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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: BIOLOGICAL, BEHAVIORAL, AND PHYSICAL CONTROL AS ALTERNATIVES FOR STORED PRODUCT AND QUARANTINE PESTS OF FRESH/DRIED FRUITS AND NUTS

Location: Commodity Protection and Quality

Title: Tolerance of codling moth and apple quality associated with low-pressure/low-temperature treatments

Authors
item Jiao, S -
item Johnson, Judy
item Mattinson, D.S. -
item Fellman, J.K. -
item Davenport, T.L. -
item Wang, S. -

Submitted to: Postharvest Biology and Technology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: June 1, 2013
Publication Date: June 28, 2013
Repository URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/56958
Citation: Jiao, S., Johnson, J.A., Mattinson, D., Fellman, J., Davenport, T., Wang, S. 2013. Tolerance of codling moth and apple quality associated with low-pressure/low-temperature treatments. Postharvest Biology and Technology. 85:136-140.

Interpretive Summary: Codling moth, a key pest of fresh fruits such as apples and pears, is an important quarantine pest for many countries. Quarantine treatments using the chemical fumigant methyl bromide are required to prevent the spread of this pest. Due to the ozone depletion potential of methyl bromide, its use is being phased out under the Montreal Protocol. Although quarantine treatments such as those targeting codling moth in fresh fruit are currently exempt under the Montreal Protocol, there is increasing pressure to extend the ban to these applications. Consequently, it is necessary to explore alternative non-chemical disinfestation methods. First developed to extend the storage life of fresh fruit, low pressure/low temperature treatments (LPLT)show potential for as an alternative disinfestation treatment. In this study, a lab-scale LPLT system was used to study apple quality and the tolerance of codling moth under the LPLT treatment environment. Different life stages of codling moth (eggs, 2nd-3rd stage larvae, 5th stage larvae and pupae) were treated in hypobaric chambers maintained at 10°C and 1.33 kPa with nearly saturated humidity (>98%). Weight loss, color, firmness, titratable acidity, and soluble solids content were measured to evaluate the quality changes of ‘Red Delicious’ apples before and after the LPLT treatment. Results showed that the 5th instar larvae were the most tolerant life stage for codling moth under LPLT treatment conditions. Insect mortality increased with increasing LPLT treatment time to >98% after 12 days of exposure to 10°C temperature and 1.33 kPa pressure. The measured quality of ‘Red Delicious’ was maintained well after 15 days of LPLT treatment, suggesting that LPLT technology has potential as an alternative non-chemical disinfestation treatment method for apples.

Technical Abstract: Development of effective low-pressure/low-temperature (LPLT) disinfestation treatments for fresh fruits requires knowledge on the tolerance of target insects to the LPLT treatment environment. In this study, different life stages of codling moth (eggs, 2nd-3rd instar larvae, 5th instar larvae and pupae) were treated in hypobaric chambers maintained at 10°C and 1.33 kPa with nearly saturated humidity (>98%). Weight loss, color, firmness, titratable acidity (TA), and soluble solids content (SSC) were selected as quality parameters to evaluate the quality changes of ‘Red Delicious’ apples before and after the LPLT treatment. Results showed that the 5th instar larvae were the most tolerant life stage for codling moth under LPLT treatment conditions. Insect mortality increased with increasing LPLT treatment time to >98% after 12 days of exposure to 10°C temperature and 1.33 kPa pressure. The measured quality of ‘Red Delicious’ was maintained well after 15 days of LPLT treatment, suggesting that LPLT technology has potential as an alternative non-chemical disinfestation treatment method for apples.

Last Modified: 8/27/2014