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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: Molecular Biology of Human Pathogens Associated with Food

Location: Produce Safety and Microbiology Research

Title: Antimicrobial activity of plant compounds against Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 in ground pork and the influence of heat and storage on the activity

Authors
item Chen, Cynthia -
item Sadhana, Ravishankar -
item Marchello, John -
item FRIEDMAN, MENDEL

Submitted to: Journal of Food Protection
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: March 13, 2013
Publication Date: July 1, 2013
Citation: Chen, C.H., Sadhana, R., Marchello, J., Friedman, M. 2013. Antimicrobial activity of plant compounds against Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 in ground pork and the influence of heat and storage on the activity. Journal of Food Protection. 76:1264-1269. doi:10:4315/0362-028X.JFP-12-493.

Interpretive Summary: The objective of this collaborative study with the Animal Science and Veterinary Science and Microbiology Departments of the University of Arizona, Tucson were to investigate the influence of heat used in culinary practice (70oC for 5 min) and cold-storage (4oC up to 7 days) on the effectiveness of oregano and cinnamon essential oils and powdered olive and apple extracts against multi-drug resistant Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 in ground pork and to evaluate the activity of the most effective antimicrobials by comparing the surviving Salmonella populations. Heating did not significantly affect the antimicrobial activities of olive extract, apple extract, oregano oil, and cinnamon oil against S. Typhimurium DT104 in ground pork. These antimicrobials can be added to foods and cooked without any loss in the stability of these compounds. The overall activity of cinnamon oil and olive extract was concentration and storage time dependent. The two samples containing the highest amount of cinnamon oil (1.0%) and olive extract (5%) showed significant 1.31 and 3 log reductions by the seventh day of cold-storage, respectively. These antimicrobials have the potential to improve microbial safety of ground pork.

Technical Abstract: The objectives of this study were to investigate the influence of heat (70oC for 5 min) and cold-storage (4oC up to 7 days) on the effectiveness of oregano and cinnamon essential oils and powdered olive and apple extracts against Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 in ground pork and to evaluate the activity of the most effective antimicrobials (cinnamon oil and olive extract) by comparing the surviving Salmonella populations in two groups. One group of pork samples was inoculated with the Salmonella culture without and the other after heat processing. Hig concentrations of the most effective compounds were then tested in heated ground pork. Samples were stored at 4oC and taken at day 0, 3, 5, and 7 for enumeration of survivors. The heating process did not affect the activity of the antimicrobials. Significant 1.3- and 3-log reductions were observed with 1.0% cinnamon oil and 5% olive extract on day 7 of storage, .respectively. The minimum concentration for a >1 log reduction was 0.8% cinnamon oil or 4% olive extract. The results demonstrate the stability of these plant antimicrobials during heating and cold storage and their effects against multi-drug resistant S. Typhimurium in ground meat. The most active formulations have the potential to enhance microbial safety of ground pork.

Last Modified: 9/10/2014