Submitted to: Government Publication/Report
Publication Type: Government Publication
Publication Acceptance Date: December 1, 2003
Publication Date: February 1, 2004
Citation: Edme, S.J., Gilbert, R., Comstock, J.C., Glaz, B.S., Tai, P., Miller, J.D., Davidson, J. 2004. Evaluation of New Canal Point Clones: 2001-2002 Harvest Season. United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, ARS-161, 35 pp.
Interpretive Summary: Farmers in Florida need a constant influx of new sugarcane varieties. During their evaluation, sugarcane varieties are referred to as clones because after a seed is obtained from a cross, the resulting plant (variety) is then vegetatively (clonally) propagated by planting buds on stalk sections. Hence, the name of this report refers to sugarcane clones rather than varieties. Due to changes in pathogens, varieties that were once disease resistant and productive can quickly become susceptible and not economical. Changes in farming practices also may lead to changes in variety preferences. For example, in Florida, some varieties lost their profitability when the harvesting system was changed from manual to mechanical. This is a report of the progress on sugarcane varieties in an advanced selection stage of the Canal Point cooperative sugarcane variety development program. Members of this program include the USDA Agricultural Research Service, the University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, and the Florida Sugar Cane League, Inc. In addition to disease resistance, this program also seeks to develop high-yielding sugarcane varieties that are tolerant to stresses such as freezes, water deficit, and high water tables. This report of results from the 2001-2002 harvest season identified two promising CP varieties (CP 94-1100 and CP 94-1340) were released for commercial production in Florida. With about 400,000 acres planted to sugarcane, Florida is the leading sugar-producing state in the U.S. and is responsible for about 25% of domestic sugar produced in the U.S. About 40,000 jobs and several rural economies are dependent on the constant influx of new sugarcane varieties from Canal Point.
Thirty replicated experiments were conducted on 9 farms (representing 7 muck and 2 sand soils) to evaluate 48 new Canal Point (CP) clones of sugarcane from the CP 94, CP 95, CP 96, and CP 97 series. Experiments compared the cane and sugar yields of the new clones, complex hybrids of Saccharum spp., primarily with yields of CP 70-1133. CP 70-1133 is now the 3rd most widely grown cultivar on sand soils and was, once, a major cultivar planted on organic soils. Each clone was also tested for its fiber content and tolerance to diseases. Based on results from these tests and from performance tests in previous years, CP 94-1100 and CP 94-1340 were released for commercial production on muck and sand soils in Florida. The audience for this publication includes growers, geneticists and other researchers, extension agents, and individuals who are interested in sugarcane cultivar development.