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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: CONSERVATION, CHARACTERIZATION, AND EVALUATION OF CROP GENETIC RESOURCES AND ASSOCIATED INFORMATION Title: The United States Arachis germplasm collection: a valuable genetic resource for mining useful traits to improve peanut quality and production

Authors
item Barkley, Noelle
item Wang, Ming

Submitted to: International Conference on Legume Genomics and Genetics
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: July 31, 2012
Publication Date: October 2, 2012
Citation: Barkley, N.L., Wang, M.L. 2012. The United States Arachis germplasm collection: a valuable genetic resource for mining useful traits to improve peanut quality and production. International Conference on Legume Genomics and Genetics. Hyderabad, India 10/2/2012-10/7/2012.

Technical Abstract: The USDA Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit maintains the second largest peanut germplasm collection in the world consisting of both cultivated and wild germplasm with a total of 9,924 Arachis accessions. A cultivated core (831 accessions) and mini core (112 accessions) collections were established to represent maximum genetic diversity with minimal redundancy to help researchers rapidly mine important traits from a manageable sample set. The mini core, botanical varieties, and some wild relatives have been evaluated for allelic variation with microsatellite and SNP markers, as well as, morphological traits. The SNP markers were developed to detect wild type and mutant alleles in both ahFAD2A and ahFAD2B, which are known to affect oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2) accumulation which is an important seed quality trait. Biochemical data such as total oil content, fatty acid composition, flavonoids, and resveratrol were also collected from the peanut mini core and selected germplasm to assess genetic and phenotypic variability. The molecular markers and phenotypic trait data were combined to assess allelic variation, phylogenetic relationships, population structure, and association analysis of the mini core accessions. Genetic variation was revealed in the mini core and a few markers associated with phenotypic traits. Collecting phenotyping and genotyping data in peanut germplasm can aid in enhancing breeding efficiency and improving seed quality.

Last Modified: 11/24/2014