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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: DIETARY CAROTENOIDS, RETINOIDS, AND BIOACTIVATES ON HEALTHY AGING Title: Mallow carotenoids determined by high-performance liquid chromatography

Authors
item El-Qudah, Jafar Muhammad -
item Qin, Jian -
item Tang, Guangwen -

Submitted to: American Journal of Applied Sciences
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: December 19, 2011
Publication Date: January 2, 2012
Citation: El-Qudah, J., Qin, J., Tang, G. 2012. Mallow carotenoids determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. American Journal of Applied Sciences. 11(23):3797-3801.

Interpretive Summary: Numerous epidemiological studies suggest that diets rich in carotenoids show a protective role in health and disease. That is, frequent consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with a relatively low incidence of chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and several types of cancer. Mallow (Corchorus olitorius) is a green vegetable, which is widely consumed either fresh or dry by Middle Eastern populations. This study was carried out to determine the concentrations of major carotenoids in mallow, by using a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with a Bischoff C30 column. Neoxanthin and violaxanthin in mallow were characterized by liquid chromatography – mass spectrometry (LC-MS) with atmospherical pressure chemical ionization (APCI) as an ionization interphase. The total carotenoids concentration was (16.9 mg/100g). Our analysis showed the presence of the following carotenoids in mallow: lutein (5.3 mg/100g), anhydrolutein (4.4 mg/100g), beta-carotene (3.7 mg/100g), cis-anhydrolutein (1.0 mg/100g), neoxanthin (1.6 mg/100g), violaxanthin (0.3 mg/100g), 9-cis-beta-carotene (0.4 mg/100g), and 13-cis-beta-carotene (0.09 mg/100g). Therefore, mallow is a rich source of carotenoids. The findings of this study provide important carotenoids values for this popular vegetable consumed by the Middle East and surrounding populations.

Technical Abstract: Mallow (corchorus olitorius) is a green vegetable, which is widely consumed either fresh or dry by Middle East population. This study was carried out to determine the contents of major carotenoids quantitatively in mallow, by using a High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) equipped with a Bischoff C30 column. Neoaxanthin and violaxanthin in mallow were characterized by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) with Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization (APCI) as an ionization interphase. The total carotenoid content of mallow was estimated as 16.9 mg/100 g fresh weight. In which, major carotenoids in mallow are: lutein (5.3 mg/100 g), anhydrolutein (4.4 mg/100 g), beta-carotene (3.7 mg/100 g), cis-anhydrolutein (1.0 mg/100 g), neoxanthin (1.6mg/ 100 g), violaxanthin (0.3 mg/100 g), 9-cis-beta-carotene (0.4 mg/100 g) and 13-cis-beta-carotene (0.09 mg/100 g). Therefore, mallow is a rich source of carotenoids. As a popular vegetable consumed by the Middle East and surrounding populations, our finding of this study confirmed that mallow is an important source for carotenoids including provitamin A carotenoids.

Last Modified: 10/21/2014
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