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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: NUTRITION, OBESITY, CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH AND GENOMICS

Location: Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging

Title: High-fat meal effect on LDL, HDL, and VLDL particle size and number in the Genetics of Lipid-Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN): an interventional study

Authors
item Wojczynski, Mark -
item Glasser, Stephen -
item Oberman, Albert -
item Kabagambe, Edmond -
item Hopkins, Paul -
item Tsai, Michael -
item Straka, Robert -
item Ordovas, Jose -
item Arnett, Donna -

Submitted to: Lipids in Health and Disease
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: October 18, 2011
Publication Date: October 18, 2011
Citation: Wojczynski, M.K., Glasser, S.P., Oberman, A., Kabagambe, E.K., Hopkins, P.N., Tsai, M.Y., Straka, R.J., Ordovas, J.M., Arnett, D.K. 2011. High-fat meal effect on LDL, HDL, and VLDL particle size and number in the Genetics of Lipid-Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN): an interventional study. Lipids in Health and Disease. 10:181.

Interpretive Summary: Postprandial lipemia (PPL), a physiological effect that occurs between 2 and 12 hours after the ingestion of food high in fats (lipids), has been hypothesized as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but this has not been tested in well described and characterized large cohort. Therefore, we assessed changes in the size and concentration of total and subclasses of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles in response to a high-fat meal. Participants (n = 1048) from the Genetics of Lipid-Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) Study who ingested a high-fat meal were included in this analysis. Blood lipids were measured at the start (fasting), 3.5 hours, and 6 hours after the high-fat meal. Lipoproteins were determined using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Our data show that LDL-C, HDL-C, VLDL-C, and triglycerides (TG) increased postprandially, with the largest increases in VLDL-C and TG; however, those with elevated fasting triglycerides demonstrated larger magnitude of response. Total LDL particle number decreased during the postprandial period, mostly from a decrease in the number of small LDL particles. Similarly, total VLDL particle number decreased due to reductions in medium and small VLDL particles. Large VLDL particles and chylomicrons demonstrated the largest increase in concentration. No significant changes were observed for HDL particles. This careful characterization of the changes in lipoproteins during the postprandial phase could contribute to a better assessment of whether the non-fasting state contributes to the buildup of fat deposits on arterial walls as in hardening of the arteries.

Technical Abstract: Postprandial lipemia (PPL) is likely a risk factor for cardiovascular disease but these changes have not been well described and characterized in a large cohort. We assessed acute changes in the size and concentration of total and subclasses of LDL, HDL, and VLDL particles in response to a high-fat meal. Participants (n = 1048) from the Genetics of Lipid-Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) Study who ingested a high-fat meal were included in this analysis. Lipids were measured at 0 hr (fasting), 3.5 hr, and 6 hr after a standardized fat meal. Particle size distributions were determined using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Analyses were stratified by baseline triglycerides (normal vs. elevated) and gender. The effect of PPL on changes in lipoprotein subclasses was assessed using repeated measures ANOVA. Postprandially, LDL-C, HDL-C, VLDL-C, and triglycerides increased regardless of baseline triglyceride status, with the largest increases in VLDL-C and TG; however, those with elevated triglycerides demonstrated larger magnitude of response. Total LDL particle number decreased over the 6-hour time interval, mostly from a decrease in the number of small LDL particles. Similarly, total VLDL particle number decreased due to reductions in medium and small VLDL particles. Large VLDL particles and chylomicrons demonstrated the largest increase in concentration. HDL particles demonstrated minimal overall changes in total particle number. We have characterized the changes in LDL and VLDL particle number, and their subclass patterns following a high-fat meal.

Last Modified: 8/21/2014