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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT FOR KEY PESTS OF PECAN AND PEACH

Location: Fruit and Nut Research

Title: Control of key pecan insect pests using biorational pesticides

Authors
item Shapiro Ilan, David
item Cottrell, Ted
item Jackson, Mark
item Wood, Bruce

Submitted to: Journal of Economic Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: October 5, 2012
Publication Date: March 1, 2013
Citation: Shapiro Ilan, D.I., Cottrell, T.E., Jackson, M.A., Wood, B.W. 2013. Control of key pecan insect pests using biorational pesticides. Journal of Economic Entomology. 106:257-266.

Interpretive Summary: Key pecan insect pests include the pecan weevil, black pecan aphid, and stink bugs. Alternative control tactics are needed for management of these pests in organic and conventional farming systems. Our objective was to evaluate the potential efficacy of several alternative insecticides including three plant extracts, MBI205 (from eucalyptus), Vintre® and ORSA-003 (both from citrus), and two microbial insecticides MBI203 (based on the bacterium Chromobacterium subtsugae) and the insect-killing fungus, Isaria fumosorosea. In the laboratory, eucalyptus extract, Vintre, ORSA-003, and C. subtsugae caused aphid mortality. In field tests, combined applications of I. fumosorosea with eucalyptus extract were synergistic and caused up to 82% mortality in black pecan aphids. In laboratory tests focusing on pecan weevil suppression, C. subtsugae reduced feeding and oviposition damage, eucalyptus extract and ORSA-003 were ineffective, and antagonism was observed when ORSA-003 was combined with the insect-killing nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae. In field tests, C. subtsugae reduced pecan weevil damage by 55% within the first 3 d, and caused 74.5% corrected mortality within 7 d post-treatment. In the laboratory, C. subtsugae and eucalyptus extract did not cause mortality in the brown stink bug. Applications of the bacteria, C. subtsugae, for suppression of pecan weevil, and eucalyptus extract plus the fungus I. fumosorosea for control of black pecan aphids show promise as alternative insecticides and should be evaluated further.

Technical Abstract: Key pecan insect pests include the pecan weevil, Curculio caryae, black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae, and stink bugs. Alternative control tactics are needed for management of these pests in organic and conventional systems. Our objective was to evaluate the potential utility of several alternative insecticides including three plant extracts, MBI205 (from eucalyptus), Vintre® and ORSA-003 (both from citrus), and two microbial insecticides MBI203 (based on Chromobacterium subtsugae) and Isaria fumosorosea. In the laboratory, eucalyptus extract, Vintre, ORSA-003, and C. subtsugae caused M. caryaefoliae mortality. In field tests, combined applications of I. fumosorosea with eucalyptus extract were synergistic and caused up to 82% mortality in M. caryaefoliae. In laboratory assays focusing on C. caryae suppression, C. subtsugae reduced feeding and oviposition damage, eucalyptus extract and ORSA-003 were ineffective, and antagonism was observed when ORSA-003 was combined with the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae. In field tests, C. subtsugae reduced C. caryae damage by 55% within the first 3 d, and caused 74.5% corrected mortality within 7 d post-treatment. In the laboratory, C. subtsugae and eucalyptus extract did not cause mortality in the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus. Applications of C. subtsugae for suppression of C. caryae, and eucalyptus extract plus I. fumosorosea for control of M. caryaefoliae show promise as alternative insecticides and should be evaluated further.

Last Modified: 12/17/2014
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