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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: Biology, Control, and Area-Wide Management of Fruit Flies and Other Quarantine Pests

Location: Tropical Crop and Commodity Protection Research

Title: Annotated world bibliography of host fruits of Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

Authors
item McQuate, Grant
item Liquido, Nicanor -

Submitted to: Insecta Mundi
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: December 11, 2012
Publication Date: March 8, 2013
Citation: Mcquate, G.T., Liquido, N.J. 2013. Annotated world bibliography of host fruits of Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Insecta Mundi. 289: 1-61.

Interpretive Summary: Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) is a tephritid fruit fly of primarily Asian distribution (e.g., Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Burma, China (Fujian, Yunnan, Hong Kong, Hainan), Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan, and Brunei), but its range has expanded through invasions of: Hawaii, where it was first detected in 1983; Okinawa, Japan where it was confirmed to exist on Yonaguni Island in 1984; Tanzania, where it was detected in 2006; and Kenya, where it was first detected in 2007. The documented invasions into countries outside its native distribution show that this species poses a risk of invasion of other countries where it does not presently exist. As with other tephritid fruit fly species, establishment of B. latifrons can have significant economic consequences, including damage and loss of food production, as well as inspection of imported susceptible commodities and requirements for implementation of costly quarantine treatments to permit export of commodities susceptible to infestation by B. latifrons. We present here a listing of all host plants of B. latifrons reported in worldwide literature, with a succinct summary of laboratory and field infestation data reported in each paper. A total of 59 plant species (54 have valid genus and species and five are identified as “sp.”), from 14 plant families, were identified as hosts of B. latifrons, based on reported field infestation data. The predominant host plant family is clearly the tomato family (Solanaceae) from which published field infestation data exists for 34 species (55.9% of recorded infested species). The family with the 2nd highest number of documented infested species is the squash family (Cucurbitaceae), for which there is published field infestation data for 9 plant species (15.3% of recorded infested species). Two species (3.4% of recorded infested species) is the most number of species for which published field infestation data has been reported from any other plant family and that is recorded from five plant families (Lythraceae, Oleaceae, Rhamnaceae, Rutaceae, and Sapindaceae). An additional 7 families have one species each for which there is a published report of field infestation (Anacardiaceae, Combretaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Myrtaceae, Passifloraceae, and Rubiaceae). The highest reported field infestation rates (number of B. latifrons individuals per kg fruit) are all reported in solanaceous fruits, the top five being Solanum lasiocarpum Dunal (823.3/kg), Solanum trilobatum L. (705.3/kg), Solanum nigrum L. (643.4/kg), Solanum torvum Sw. (402.3/kg), and Lycianthes biflora (Lour.) Bitter (397.8/kg). The highest reported field infestation rate for any non-solanaceous fruit was 27.9/kg for Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt, followed by 6.3/kg for Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn. Our summary will permit quarantine regulatory officials to better assess the risk of introduction of B. latifrons in imported or exported fruits and vegetables.

Technical Abstract: Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) infests many solanaceous plant species, some of which are important horticultural crop species. It has also been found to infest a number of cucurbitaceous plant species as well as a few plant species in other plant families. B. latifrons is of primarily Asian distribution (e.g., Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Burma, China [Fujian, Yunnan, Hong Kong, Hainan], Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan, and Brunei), but its range has expanded through introductions into Hawaii, where it was first detected in 1983; Okinawa, Japan where it was confirmed to exist on Yonaguni Island in 1984; Tanzania, where it was first detected in 2006; and Kenya, where it was first detected in 2007. The documented introductions into countries outside its native distribution show that this species poses a risk of introductions into other countries where it does not presently occur. As with other tephritid fruit fly species, establishment of B. latifrons can have significant economic consequences, including damage and loss of food production, as well as requirements for implementation of costly quarantine treatments to permit export of commodities susceptible to infestation by B. latifrons and inspection of susceptible imported commodities. We present here a synopsis of all host plants of B. latifrons reported in worldwide literature, with annotations on reported laboratory and field infestation data. A total of 59 plant species (54 have valid genus and species and five are identified as “sp.”), from 14 plant families, were identified as hosts of B. latifrons, based on reported field infestation data. The predominant host plant family is Solanaceae, with documented field infestation data for 34 species (55.9% of recorded infested species). The family with the 2nd highest number of documented infested species is Cucurbitaceae, for which there is published field infestation data for 9 plant species (15.3% of recorded infested species). Two species (3.4% of recorded infested species) is the most number of species for which published field infestation data has been reported from any other plant family and that is recorded from five plant families: Lythraceae, Oleaceae, Rhamnaceae, Rutaceae, and Sapindaceae. An additional 7 families have one species each for which there is a published report of field infestation: Anacardiaceae, Combretaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Myrtaceae, Passifloraceae, and Rubiaceae. These plant families are spread out among nine plant orders: The highest reported field infestation rates (number of B. latifrons individuals per kg fruit) are all reported in solanaceous fruits, the top five being Solanum lasiocarpum Dunal (823.3/kg), Solanum trilobatum L. (705.3/kg), Solanum nigrum L. (643.4/kg), Solanum torvum Sw. (402.3/kg), and Lycianthes biflora (Lour.) Bitter (397.8/kg). The highest reported field infestation rate for any non-solanaceous fruit was 27.9/kg for Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt, followed by 6.3/kg for Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn. It should be noted, though, that wide variation in methods of reporting infestation rates among recorded hosts precludes objective quantitative rate comparisons.

Last Modified: 12/22/2014
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