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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGH BETA-GLUCAN OAT CULTIVARS

Location: Cereal Crops Research

Title: Detailed composition analyses of diverse oat genotype kernels grown in different environments in North Dakota

Authors
item Doehlert, Douglas
item Simsek, Senay -
item Thavarajah, Dil -
item Thavarajah, Pushparajah -
item Ohm, Jae-Bom

Submitted to: Cereal Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: June 25, 2013
Publication Date: November 1, 2013
Repository URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/58110
Citation: Doehlert, D.C., Simsek, S., Thavarajah, D., Thavarajah, P., Ohm, J.-B. 2013. Detailed composition analyses of diverse oat genotype kernels grown in different environments in North Dakota. Cereal Chemistry. 90(6):572-578.

Interpretive Summary: The nutritional composition of eighteen oat varieties that had been grown in six different environments were determined in order to show how oat nutritional composition can vary among cultivars and environment. On average, oats contained 56.5% starch, 18.1 % protein, 7.9% oil, 6.0% insoluble fiber, 5.2% soluble fiber, and 1.9% ash. Analysis of mineral concentrations indicated 3,420 ppm potassium, 1, 420 ppm magnesium, 441 ppm calcium, 52 ppm iron, 26 ppm zinc and 0.38 ppm selenium. Wet environments tended to have more starch and soluble fiber, whereas dry environments tended to accumulate more protein relative to other compositional components. The data set provides a more complete account for the variation in oat composition in commonly grown North American oat cultivars than previously available.

Technical Abstract: Nutritional composition of oat kernels from 18 genotypes grown in 6 environments in North Dakota (USA) was analyzed by chemical means. Of the macro-nutrients, mean starch concentration was 56.5%, protein was 18.1%, oil was 7.9%, neutral detergent fiber (insoluble fiber) was 6.0%, beta-glucan (soluble fiber) was 5.2%, ash was 1.9%, and soluble carbohydrate was 0.6%. These add up to 96.2%, which appear to account for most of the mass of the oat kernel. Protein amino acid analysis indicated 4.5% lysine and a.8% methionine. Free amino acid analysis indicated 1130 micrograms/g flour asparagine. The 18:1 and 18:2 fatty acids were the most abundant in oat lipids. Mean micro-nutrient concentrations in oat kernels included potassium (3419 ppm), magnesium (1416 ppm), calcium (441 ppm), iron (52 ppm), zinc (26 ppm), and selenium (0.38 ppm). Analysis of variance indicated significant genotypic and environmental variation, as well as significant genotype by environmental interaction for most of the nutritional components. In general, protein was higher in drier hotter environments, whereas oil and beta-glucan, and starch were higher in wetter, cooler environments. The results provide a unique data base of a collection of compositional components for specific oat genotypes in diverse environments.

Last Modified: 9/22/2014
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