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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: MANAGEMENT OF GENETIC RESOURCES FOR VITIS, PRUNUS, JUGLANS, FICUS, OLEA, PISTACIA, PUNICA, DIOSPYROS, ACTINIDIA, AND MORUS Title: Genetic diversity, structure and differentiation within and between cultivated (Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sativa) and wild (Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sylvestris) grapes

Authors
item Zudunic, Goran -
item Preece, John
item Aradhya, Mallikarjuna
item Velasco, Dianne -
item Pitcher, Anne
item Dangl, Gerald -

Submitted to: Vitis
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: October 22, 2012
Publication Date: January 15, 2013
Repository URL: http://www.ars-grin.gov/dav
Citation: Zudunic, G., Preece, J.E., Aradhya, M.K., Velasco, D., Pitcher, A.M., Dangl, G.S. 2013. Genetic diversity, structure and differentiation within and between cultivated (Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sativa) and wild (Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sylvestris) grapes. Vitis. 52(1):29-32.

Interpretive Summary: Genetic characterization of 502 diverse grape accessions including 342 cultivated (V. vinifera ssp. sativa) and 160 wild (V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris) grapes showed considerable genetic diversity among accessions. A total of 117 alleles were detected with the average of 14 alleles per locus. The total gene diversity (HT) across the five ecogeographic groups over all loci was 0.799 and about 6% of the total gene diversity was due to differentiation among ecogeographic groups (GST) and remaining 94% of variation was common to all groups (HS). The genetic diversity of wild grapes was slightly lower than that observed in the cultivated grapes probably due to small populations leading to drift and loss of alleles and heterozygosity in wild grapes. Both distance and model based cluster analysis (CA) supported the classical ecogeographic groups with moderate genetic differentiation among them. There was a greater affinity of Occidentalis grape to wild grape from the Caucasus than other groups, but the model based CA has suggested a second cluster of wild grape from the foot hills of the greater Caucasus Mountains. The subcluster specific alleles indicated that a number of low to moderate frequency alleles in cultivated groups were missing in the wild grapes, suggesting the loss of alleles in the wild grape subsequent to domestication or those alleles were not favored during domestication.

Technical Abstract: Genetic characterization of 502 diverse grape accessions including 342 cultivated (V. vinifera ssp. sativa) and 160 wild (V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris) grapes showed considerable genetic diversity among accessions. A total of 117 alleles were detected with the average of 14 alleles per locus. The total gene diversity (HT) across the five ecogeographic groups over all loci was 0.799 and about 6% of the total gene diversity was due to differentiation among ecogeographic groups (GST) and remaining 94% of variation was common to all groups (HS). The genetic diversity of wild grapes was slightly lower than that observed in the cultivated grapes probably due to small populations leading to drift and loss of alleles and heterozygosity in wild grapes. Both distance and model based cluster analysis (CA) supported the classical ecogeographic groups with moderate genetic differentiation among them. There was a greater affinity of Occidentalis grape to wild grape from the Caucasus than other groups, but the model based CA has suggested a second cluster of wild grape from the foot hills of the greater Caucasus Mountains. The subcluster specific alleles indicated that a number of low to moderate frequency alleles in cultivated groups were missing in the wild grapes, suggesting the loss of alleles in the wild grape subsequent to domestication or those alleles were not favored during domestication.

Last Modified: 11/25/2014
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