|Heiser, Axel -|
|Wedlock, D -|
|Buddle, Bryce -|
Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: June 11, 2012
Publication Date: June 11, 2012
Citation: Heiser, A., Waters, W.R., Wedlock, D.N., Buddle, B.M. 2012. Host/pathogen interactions and immune effector mechanisms [abstract]. 1st Mycobacterium bovis American Regional Conference. p. 22. Technical Abstract: An understanding of the host/pathogen interactions for mycobacterial infections underpins many of the outcomes required for improving disease control, including better diagnostic tests, vaccines and breeding for disease resistance. Upon infection these mycobacteria come in contact with cells of the host’s immune system and both sides realign their own and affect the other sides’ metabolism. In this review we examine this relationship between host and pathogen, with a particular emphasis on immune effector mechanisms. Cells of the innate immune system are the first line of defence against mycobacterial infection relying on recognition of the pathogen. Involved in this recognition are pattern recognition receptors (PPRs), including Toll-like receptors (TLRs), C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), and NOD-like receptors (NLRs). Neutrophils interact with macrophages and other immune cells effecting down-stream events like T cell activation. Natural Killer (NK) cells are also endowed with cell-structure-sensing receptors able to recognize ligands on mycobacteria-infected cells. It is generally accepted that cell-mediated immunity is essential for protection against mycobacterial infections involving antigen-presenting cells (macrophages and dendritic cells), helper T lymphocytes and cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Recent findings support a role for gamma delta T cells. Communication between cells of the immune system relies on cytokines and other lipid mediators and to a lesser degree on cell-cell-contacts. Soluble effector molecules, like granulysin and perforin, have recently gained significance. Gene expression profiling of bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells from M. bovis-infected cattle following stimulation with M. bovis antigens is being used to identify a biomarker profile for tuberculosis (TB) detection. There is also interest in the identification of specific host genes and susceptibility to M. bovis infection which could lead to selection for increased genetic resistance of cattle to bovine TB. Keywords: Host/pathogen interactions, Mycobacteria, Macrophages, T cells.