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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: CONSERVATION, CHARACTERIZATION, AND EVALUATION OF CROP GENETIC RESOURCES AND ASSOCIATED INFORMATION

Location: Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit

Title: Evaluation of oil content and fatty acid composition in the USDA castor germplasm collection for biodiesel production.

Authors
item Wang, Ming
item Morris, John
item Tonnis, Brandon
item Pinnow, David
item Davis, Jerry -
item Raymer, Paul -
item Pederson, Gary

Submitted to: ASA-CSSA-SSSA Annual Meeting Abstracts
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: June 18, 2012
Publication Date: October 23, 2012
Citation: Wang, M.L., Morris, J.B., Tonnis, B.D., Pinnow, D.L., Davis, J., Raymer, P., Pederson, G.A. 2012. Evaluation of oil content and fatty acid composition in the USDA castor germplasm collection for biodiesel production [abstract]. ASA-CSSA-SSSA Annual Meeting Abstracts. Paper No. 250-3.

Interpretive Summary: Castor has potential as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The oil content and fatty acid composition in castor seed are important factors to determine the price for production and affect the key fuel properties of biodiesel. There were 1033 available castor accessions collected or donated from 48 countries worldwide in the U.S. germplasm collection. The entire U.S. castor collection was screened for oil content and fatty acid composition by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography (GC), respectively. Castor seeds on the average contain 48.2% oil with a significant variability ranging from 37.2 – 60.6%. Methyl esters were prepared from castor seed by alkaline transmethylation. GC analysis of methyl esters confirmed that castor oil was comprised primarily of eight fatty acids: 1.48% palmitic (C16:0), 1.58% stearic (C18:0), 4.41% oleic (C18:1), 6.42% linoleic (C18:2), 0.68% linolenic (C18:3), 0.45% gadoleic (C20:1), 84.51% ricinoleic (C18:1-1OH), and 0.47% dihydroxystearic (C18:0-2OH) acids. Significant variability on fatty acid composition was detected among castor accessions. Ricinoleic acid (RA) was positively correlated with dihydroxystearic acid (DHSA) but highly negatively correlated with the other five fatty acids except linolenic acid. The results for oil content and fatty acid composition obtained from this study will be useful for end-users to explore castor germplasm for biodiesel production.

Technical Abstract: Castor has potential as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The oil content and fatty acid composition in castor seed are important factors to determine the price for production and affect the key fuel properties of biodiesel. There were 1033 available castor accessions collected or donated from 48 countries worldwide in the U.S. germplasm collection. The entire U.S. castor collection was screened for oil content and fatty acid composition by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography (GC), respectively. Castor seeds on the average contain 48.2% oil with a significant variability ranging from 37.2 – 60.6%. Methyl esters were prepared from castor seed by alkaline transmethylation. GC analysis of methyl esters confirmed that castor oil was comprised primarily of eight fatty acids: 1.48% palmitic (C16:0), 1.58% stearic (C18:0), 4.41% oleic (C18:1), 6.42% linoleic (C18:2), 0.68% linolenic (C18:3), 0.45% gadoleic (C20:1), 84.51% ricinoleic (C18:1-1OH), and 0.47% dihydroxystearic (C18:0-2OH) acids. Significant variability on fatty acid composition was detected among castor accessions. Ricinoleic acid (RA) was positively correlated with dihydroxystearic acid (DHSA) but highly negatively correlated with the other five fatty acids except linolenic acid. The results for oil content and fatty acid composition obtained from this study will be useful for end-users to explore castor germplasm for biodiesel production.

Last Modified: 4/19/2014
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