Submitted to: Sugar Journal
Publication Type: Trade Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: April 12, 2012
Publication Date: June 20, 2012
Citation: Zhao, D., Laborde, C., Hu, C., Perdomo, R., Irey, M. 2012. Yield Performance of 14 Sugarcane Genotypes on Sand Soils in Florida. Sugar Journal. pp18.
Biotic and abiotic stresses on sand soils in Florida limit sugarcane yields. In addition to improved fertilizer and irrigation management, identification and selection of stress-tolerant genotypes may improve sugarcane productivity on sand soils. Objectives of this study were to improve understanding of physiological mechanisms of sugarcane genotype stress tolerance and to determine sugarcane agronomic performance and its relationships with growth and physiological traits. Fourteen diverse sugarcane cultivars (genotypes), including a check cultivar, CP 78-1628, were planted at two locations (the U.S Sugar Corp. at Townsite and Florida Crystals Corp. at PPI) in October and December, 2010, respectively. Each experimental unit consisted of three, 1.5-meter wide rows that were 4.6 meters long with a 4.6-meter alley between each plot. The experimental design at each location was a randomized complete block with four replications. In addition to measurements of leaf relative chlorophyll (SPAD) and leaf photosynthesis during the formative growth phase, stalk diameter, stalk height, and stalk sucrose content were quantified to estimate cane yield (Mg/ha), commercial recoverable sucrose (g/kg), and sucrose yield (Mg/ha) when harvested in late December 2011 (Townsite) or early January 2012 (PPI). Among the 14 genotypes, cane tonnage ranged from 160 (TCP 02-4587) to 261 (CP 01-2390) Mg ha-1; commercial recoverable sucrose ranged from 123 (CP 03-1939) to 141 (CPCL 01-0877) g/kg; and sucrose yield ranged from 20.8 (TCP 02-4587) to 34.1 (CP 01-2390) Mg/ha. Sucrose yields correlated significantly with tonnage (r = 0.951, P <0.001), stalk length (r = 0.731, P < 0.01), and mean stalk weight (r = 0.642, P < 0.01) across genotypes. The correlation coefficients (r) of leaf photosynthesis with cane yield, commercial recoverable sucrose, and sucrose yield were 0.612 (P < 0.05), 0.393 (P > 0.05), and 0.735 (P < 0.01), respectively. Great variation of yield components among genotypes and correlation between leaf photosynthesis and yield traits suggested that leaf photosynthesis and stalk length may be useful for selecting some genotypes with high yields on sand soils. Ratoon crop performance of theses genotypes are further determined.