Submitted to: Indian Journal of Animal Sciences
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: January 6, 2012
Publication Date: February 1, 2012
Citation: Biswal, J.K., Sanyal, A., Rodriguez, L.L., Subramaniam, S., Arzt, J., Sharma, G.K., Hammond, J.M., Parida, S., Mohapatra, J.K., Mathapati, B.S., Dash, B.B., Ranjan, R., Rout, M., Venketaramanan, R., Misri, J., Krishna, L., Prasad, G., Pathak, K.M., Pattnaik, B. 2012. Foot-and-mouth disease: global status and Indian perspective. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 82(2):109-131.
Interpretive Summary: Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals (cattle, swine, buffalo) that affects a large portion of animals in endemic regions in Asia, Africa and South America. The disease is seldom lethal but causes major losses in milk and meat production and is perhaps the main disease limiting trade of animals and animal products. The disease is a major threat to cattle, buffalo (both milk and meat) and pig production in endemic countries and therefore considered to cause food insecurity, both locally and globally. Control is complicated by the fact that the FMD virus is highly transmissible and exists in 6 different serotypes and multiple subtypes that require specific vaccines to induce protection. The emergence of new FMD viruses that are not covered by current vaccines occurs regularly and require a constant surveillance and testing for vaccine coverage. One of the serotypes, A viruses have been continuously emerging in nature requiring frequent replacement of the vaccine strains. The present review summarizes and updates the situation of FMD viruses and vaccines with particular emphasis on current control programs in India.
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and transboundary viral disease of domesticated and wild cloven-hoofed animals. Wide prevalence of the disease in Asia and Africa associated with huge economic loss to the livestock farming and industry has increased the concern worldwide. The disease is a major threat to cattle, buffalo (both milk and meat) and pig production in endemic countries and therefore considered to cause food insecurity, both locally and globally. Currently, 6 serotypes of FMD virus (O, A, Asia-1, SAT-1, -2, and -3) are circulating globally, and serotype C has not been recorded since 1995. In India, the disease is caused by serotypes O, A, and Asia-1, of which serotype O is responsible for most of the outbreaks. Emergence and re-emergence of FMD virus genotypes/lineages has been detected in serotypes. Serotype A viruses have been continuously emerging in nature necessitating frequent replacement of the vaccine strains. The knowledge generated in epidemiology, diagnosis and surveillance of the disease in the country has been instrumental in formulation and implementation of FMD Control Programme through regular 6 monthly vaccination with the aim to create disease free zones in India. The control programme, in operation since X Plan, has resulted in progressive and substantial reduction in occurrence of the disease and DIVA reactors/converters in vaccinated areas. The present review summarizes the disease, the causative agent, and epidemiology of FMD in India and the world.