HIGHER DIPTERA PESTS OF LIVESTOCK AND POULTRY: SCREWWORM FLIES
Location: Screwworm Research
Title: Use of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae, Cordyceps bassiana and Isaria fumosorosea to control Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psylidae) in Persian lime under field conditions
| Lezama-Gutiérrez, Roberto - |
| Molina-Ochoa, Jaime - |
| Chávez-Flores, Omar - |
| Ángel-Sahagún, César - |
| Reyes-Martínez, Gerardo - |
| Barba-Reynoso, Marisela - |
| Rebolledo-Dominguez, Oscar - |
| Ruiz-Aguilar, Graciela - |
| Foster, John - |
Submitted to: International Journal of Tropical Insect Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: March 22, 2012
Publication Date: May 11, 2012
Citation: Lezama-Gutiérrez, R., Molina-Ochoa, J., Chávez-Flores, O., Ángel-Sahagún, C.A., Skoda, S.R., Reyes-Martínez, G., Barba-Reynoso, M., Rebolledo-Dominguez, O., Ruiz-Aguilar, G.M., Foster, J.E. 2012. Use of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae, Cordyceps bassiana and Isaria fumosorosea to control Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psylidae) in Persian lime under field conditions. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science. 32(1):39-44.
Interpretive Summary: Citrus greening, also called Huanglongbing or yellow dragon disease, is one of the more serious diseases of citrus. This bacterial disease attacks the vascular system of plants. Once infected, there is no cure for a tree with citrus greening disease. In areas where citrus greening is found, citrus trees decline and die within a few years. The disease is primarily spread by two species of psyllid insects. The Asian citrus psyllid is an efficient vector of the proteobacteria causing citrus greening. This insect pest is susceptible to entomopathogenic fungi; we report the use of three fungi against the nymphs and adults of Asian citrus psyllid under field conditions. Within Persian lime groves, the fungi were applied four times with a 15 day time interval between applications. The percent of control varied from 60, 50, 40, and 35% in nymphs, and from 50, 50, 42, and 22% in adults. The entomopathogenic fungi applied on Persian lime groves are more effective to reduce numbers of nymphs than adults of Asian citrus psyllid. These fungi may become part of future integrated management tools against the Asian citrus psyllid so to reduce the incidence of citrus greening.
The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is a destructive insect pest in the citriculture, because it is an efficient vector of the proteobacteria, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las), ‘Ca. L. Africanus’ (Laf), and ‘Ca. L. Americanus’ (Lam). These bacteria cause the disease called “Huanglongbing”, “Greening” or “Yellow dragon disease”. The disease kills the plant and reduces fruit production. This insect pest is susceptible to entomopathogenic fungi; we report the use of Metarhizium anisopliae, C. bassiana, and I. fumosorosea against the nymphs and adults of D. citri under field conditions. The fungi were applied four times using a concentration of 2x1013 conidia/ha with a time interval of 15 days between applications. The percent of control of Cb108, Ma 65, Ma 14, and Ifr 4 varied from 60, 50, 40, and 35% in nymphs, and from 50, 50, 42, and 22% in adults, respectively. The entomopathogenic fungi M. anisopliae, C. bassiana, and I. fumosorosea applied on Persian lime groves are effective to reduce higher density of nymphs than adults of D. citri.