PROTECTIVE ENDOPHYTES OF MAIZE THAT INHIBIT FUNGAL PATHOGENS AND REDUCE MYCOTOXIN CONTAMINATION
Location: Bacterial Foodborne Pathogens & Mycology Research Unit
Title: Phylogeny and nomenclature of the genus Talaromyces and taxa accommodated in Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium
| Samson, Robert - |
| Yilmaz, N - |
| Houbraken, Jos - |
| Spierenburg, H - |
| Seifert, Keith - |
| Varga, Janos - |
| Frisvad, Jens - |
Submitted to: Studies in Mycology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: November 15, 2011
Publication Date: December 1, 2011
Citation: Samson, R.A., Yilmaz, N., Houbraken, J., Spierenburg, H., Seifert, K.A., Peterson, S.W., Varga, J., Frisvad, J.C. 2011. Phylogeny and nomenclature of the genus Talaromyces and taxa accommodated in Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium. Studies in Mycology. 70(2011):159-183.
Interpretive Summary: Molds in the toxin forming and food decaying groups called Talaromyces and Biverticillium have long been considered distinct groups because while they resemble each other, one reproduces sexually and the other group is strictly asexual. Recent advances in DNA sequencing technology and mold genetics show that the two groups should be treated as a single group, some of which have sex in a way that it not observed. We used DNA sequences to determine the relationships of the species and changed names to reflect those relationships. As this group includes species important to biotechnology, medicine and food technology, our research will facilitate communication among scientists working in agricultural biotechnology and other private industries, medicine, and food science.
The taxonomic history of Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium is reviewed, along with evidence supporting its relationship to Talaromyces. The phylogenetic relationships of these two groups with other genera of Trichocomaceae was studied by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and a part of the RPB1 (RNA polymerase II largest subunit) gene. Talaromyces species and most species Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium sensu Pitt form a monophyletic clade distant from other subgenera of Penicillium. For detailed phylogenetic analysis of species relationships, the ITS region (incl. 5.8S rDNA) was sequenced for the available type strains and/or representative isolates of Talaromyces and related biverticillate species. Extrolite profiles were compiled for all type strains and many supplementary cultures. All evidence supports our conclusions that Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium is distinct from other subgenera in Penicillium and should be taxonomically unified with the Talaromyces species in the same clade. Following nomenclatural priority and single name nomenclature, we transfer all accepted species of Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium to Talaromyces. A holomorphic generic diagnosis for the expanded concept of Talaromyces, including teleomorph and anamorph characters, is provided. A list of accepted Talaromyces names and newly combined Penicillium names is given. Species of importance to biotechnology and medicine, such as P. funiculosum and P. marneffei, now have names in Talaromyces.