|Nicklas, Theresa -|
|O'Neill, Carol -|
Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: January 20, 2011
Publication Date: June 20, 2011
Citation: Nicklas, T.A., O'Neill, C.E. 2011. Dietary intake of children over two decades in a community and an approach for modification. In: Berenson, G.S., editor. Evolution of Cardio-Metabolic Risk from Birth to Middle Age: The Bogalusa Heart Study. New York, NY: Springer Science + Business Media B.V. pp 155-183. Technical Abstract: Dietary intake is a major environmental factor influencing health and disease. Dietary studies of intake and eating patterns are a cornerstone of cardiovascular (CV) research. Such studies have been conducted in the Bogalusa Heart Study from its origin and have helped understand childhood nutrition and its influence on CV risk factors and adult CV diseases. Adverse high levels of calories, sodium, saturated fat, cholesterol, and refined sugar have been noted and eating patterns associated with overweight and the metabolic syndrome are described. Despite careful methodology, documenting the amount of excess daily energy intake over time that can result in overweight is limited. Observations of secular trends showed a significant negative trend in energy intake relative to body weight, a decrease of cholesterol intake, and a positive trend of total carbohydrate and starch intake. Beverage consumption has increased and has contributed to increased total energy intake, while fruit/juice/vegetable intake was higher in subjects with lower risk factors. An effort to improve intake of fruit and vegetable was conducted as an intensive media campaign for high school students and their parents. The "Gimme 5 Nutrition Concept" effectively helped to develop positive attitudes and improvement of dietary habits of high school students.