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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: WHAT WE EAT IN AMERICA - DIETARY SURVEY: DATA COLLECTION, INTERPRETATION, DISSEMINATION, AND METHODOLOGY

Location: Food Surveys

Title: Dietary intakes of choline: What We Eat In America, NHANES 2007-2008

Authors
item Chester, Deirdra
item Goldman, Joseph
item Ahuja, Jaspreet
item Moshfegh, Alanna

Submitted to: Worldwide Web Site: Food Surveys Research Group
Publication Type: Review Article
Publication Acceptance Date: October 21, 2011
Publication Date: October 27, 2011
Repository URL: http://www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=19476
Citation: Chester, D.N., Goldman, J.D., Ahuja, J.K., Moshfegh, A.J. 2011. Dietary intakes of choline: What We Eat In America, NHANES 2007-2008. Worldwide Web Site: Food Surveys Research Group. Available: www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.html?docid=19476.

Interpretive Summary: Choline is an essential nutrient important for normal function of all cells and for brain development and function. Choline is also important in pregnancy for optimal fetal development. Using nationwide data on intakes from What We Eat In America, NHANES 2007–2008, we report choline intake of the U.S. population by gender and age. Food categories that contribute to choline intake were discussed. Choline intake of the U.S. population is available on the Food Surveys Research Group Web site at www.ars.usda.gov/ba/bhnrc/fsrg. Data show that the estimated mean daily intake of choline from food for all individuals was 302 milligrams (mg). When comparing by age and gender, males consumed significantly more choline than females for all age groups with the exception of children. With the exception of males 70 years of age and older, there are no gender and age differences in choline intake expressed per 1,000 kilocalories. Thus, choline intake is positively correlated with caloric intake. Within age groups, black males had the lowest mean choline intakes. Few race and ethnicity differences were observed in the mean choline intakes of females. Foods that are rich in choline include milk, liver, eggs, and peanuts. Major contributors to choline in the diet include meat, poultry, and fish; grain-based mixed dishes; dairy; and eggs and egg dishes. About a third of the choline comes from meat, poultry, and fish and mixed dishes that contain meat, poultry, or fish. The information in this report is informative for health professionals, nutrition educators, and others interested in the dietary intake of the U.S. population.

Technical Abstract: The purpose of this report is to present data on the choline intake of the U.S. population and the food categories that contribute to intake. The dietary data was from twenty-four hour recall provided by all 9,118 individuals who participated in What We Eat In America, NHANES 2007–2008. The analysis of the contribution of food categories to choline intake used dietary intake data provided by all study participants in NHANES 2007–2008. Data shows that the estimated mean daily intake of choline from food for all individuals was 302 mg. For individuals 20 years of age and older, estimated mean daily intake of choline was 396 mg for males and 260 mg for females. Males consumed significantly more choline than females. When choline per 1,000 kilocalories is considered, with the exception of males 70 years of age and older, there are no gender age differences in choline intake. For intake by race and ethnicity, within age groups, black males had the lowest mean choline intakes. There were few race and ethnic differences in the mean choline intakes of females. Foods that contribute to choline intake include milk, liver, eggs and peanuts. The major contributors of choline in the diet include meat, poultry, and fish; grain-based mixed dishes; dairy; and eggs and egg dishes. One-third of the choline comes from meat, poultry, and fish and mixed dishes that contain meat, poultry, or fish. One-quarter comes from grain-based products. Eggs and egg dishes and dairy each contribute slightly more than 10%.

Last Modified: 9/2/2014
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