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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: INTEGRATED WEED MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS FOR ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL CROPS OF THE SOUTHEASTERN COASTAL PLAIN

Location: Crop Protection and Management Research

Title: Implements and cultivation frequency to improve in-row weed control in organic peanut production

Authors
item Johnson, Wiley
item Boudreau, Mark -
item Davis, Jerry -

Submitted to: Weed Technology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: December 21, 2011
Publication Date: June 29, 2012
Citation: Johnson, W.C., Boudreau, M.A., Davis, J.W. 2012. Implements and cultivation frequency to improve in-row weed control in organic peanut production. Weed Technology. 26:334-340.

Interpretive Summary: Weed control in organic peanut production is difficult and costly, which limits expansion of the production system. Sweep cultivation in the row middles is effective, but weeds remain in the crop row causing yield loss. Research trials were conducted in Tifton, GA to evaluate implements and frequencies of cultivation to improve in-row weed control in organic peanut. Implements were a tine weeder and PTO-powered brush-hoe. Frequencies of cultivation were at vegetative emergence of peanut (VE), 1wk after VE, 2wk after VE, sequential combinations of VE/1wk, VE/2wk, and VE/1wk/2wk. The tine weeder tended to be easier to operate and performed more consistently than the brush-hoe. Both implements performed best when initial cultivation was at VE, compared to delays in the initial cultivation. Delaying the initial cultivation reduced overall effectiveness. Plots with the best weed control from cultivation were handweeded to control escapes and harvested for peanut yield. The best combination of in-row weed control, minimal use of salvage handweeding, and maximum peanut yield resulted from sequential cultivation at VE/1wk, using either the tine weeder or brush-hoe. While improvements were made in controlling in-row weeds using cultivation, additional modifications in peanut cultural practices are needed to facilitate peanut competition with weeds.

Technical Abstract: Weed control in organic peanut production is difficult and costly, which limits expansion of the production system. Sweep cultivation in the row middles is effective, but weeds remain in the crop row causing yield loss. Research trials were conducted in Tifton, GA to evaluate implements and frequencies of cultivation to improve in-row weed control in organic peanut. The experimental design was a split-plot. Main plots were two cultivation implements; a tine weeder and PTO-powered brush-hoe. Sub-plots were seven frequencies of cultivation; vegetative emergence of peanut (VE), 1wk after VE, 2wk after VE, sequential combinations of VE/1wk, VE/2wk, and VE/1wk/2wk. The tine weeder tended to be easier to operate and performed more consistently than the brush-hoe. Both implements performed best when initial cultivation was at VE, compared to delays in the initial cultivation. Delaying the initial cultivation reduced overall effectiveness. Plots with the best weed control from cultivation were handweeded to control escapes and harvested for peanut yield. The best combination of in-row weed control, minimal use of salvage handweeding, and maximum peanut yield resulted from sequential cultivation at VE/1wk, using either the tine weeder or brush-hoe. While improvements were made in controlling in-row weeds using cultivation, additional modifications in peanut cultural practices are needed to facilitate peanut competition with weeds.

Last Modified: 11/28/2014
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