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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: NUTRITION, OBESITY, CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH AND GENOMICS

Location: Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging

Title: Consumption of diets with different type of fat influences triacylglycerols-rich lipoproteins particle number and size during the postprandial state

Authors
item Perez-Martinez, Pablo -
item Ordovas, Jose -
item Garcia-Rios, Antonio -
item Delgado-Lista, Javier -
item Delgado-Casado, Nieves -
item Cruz-Teno, Cristina -
item Camargo, Antonio -
item Yubero-Serrano, Elna Maria -
item Rodriguez, F -
item Perez-Jimenez, Francisco -
item Lopez-Miranda, Jose -

Submitted to: Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Disease
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: July 22, 2009
Publication Date: January 10, 2011
Citation: Perez-Martinez, P., Ordovas, J.M., Garcia-Rios, A., Delgado-Lista, J., Delgado-Casado, N., Cruz-Teno, C., Camargo, A., Yubero-Serrano, E., Rodriguez, F., Perez-Jimenez, F., Lopez-Miranda, J. 2011. Consumption of diets with different type of fat influences triacylglycerols-rich lipoproteins particle number and size during the postprandial state. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Disease. 21(1):39-45.

Interpretive Summary: Cardiovascular diseases are multifactorial and blood lipids are one of their best characterized risk factors. In addition to blood cholesterol levels, triglycerides (TG) are also important risk factors and their levels are determined by genetic and environmental factors such as diet. In fact, previous evidence suggests that dietary fat influences the composition and size of TG-rich lipoproteins (TRL). In a controlled intervention study on healthy subjects, we evaluated the influence of 3 dietary interventions, with different types of fat on postprandial TRL particle size and number. Volunteers followed three different diets for four weeks each, according to a randomized crossover design. Western diet: 15% protein, 47% carbohydrates (CHO), 38% fat (22% saturated fatty acid (SFA)); Mediterranean diet: 15% protein, 47% CHO, 38% fat (24% monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA)); high CHO enriched with alpha-linolenic acid diet : 15% protein, 55% CHO, <30% fat (8% polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)). The olive oil-rich meal reduced the number of total TRL postprandial particles compared with the other meals. Moreover, the olive oil meal also increased the TRL particle size compared with the walnut meal. Therefore, these data showed that consumption of the Mediterranean diet lead to a more protective blood lipid profile consisting of reduced number and larger TRL particle compared with other fat sources. These novel findings have implications on public health recommendations to reduce cardiovascular risk.

Technical Abstract: Background and aims: Previous evidence suggests that dietary fat could influence the composition and size of triacylglycerols-rich lipoproteins (TRL). In a controlled intervention study on healthy subjects, we evaluated the influence of 3 dietary interventions, with different types of fat on postprandial TRL particle size and number. Methods and results: Volunteers followed three different diets for four weeks each, according to a randomized crossover design.Western diet: 15% protein, 47% carbohydrates (CHO), 38% fat (22% saturated fatty acid (SFA)); Mediterranean diet: 15% protein, 47% CHO, 38% fat (24% monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA)); high CHO enriched with ALNA diet: 15% protein, 55% CHO,<30% fat (8% polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)). After a 12-h fast, volunteers consumed a breakfast with 1 g fat and 7 mg cholesterol per kg body weight and a fat composition similar to that consumed in each of the diets: Butter meal: 35% SFA; Olive oil meal: 36% MUFA; Walnut meal: 16% PUFA, 4% a-linolenic acid. Tryglicerides (TG) in TRL (large and small TRL) were determined by ultracentrifugation and size and number of lipoprotein particles were measured with Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy at different time points. The olive oil meal reduced the number of total TRL postprandial particles compared with the other meals (PZ0.002). Moreover, the olive oil meal also increased the TRL particle size compared with the walnut meal (PZ0.001). Conclusion: Our data showed that short-term intake of the Mediterranean diet and the acute intake of an olive oil meal lead to the formation of a reduced number and higher-size TRL particle compared with other fat sources. These novel findings have implications for understanding the postprandial lipoprotein mechanisms, and could favour the lower cardiovascular risk in Mediterranean countries.

Last Modified: 9/1/2014
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