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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: ALLIUM, CUCUMIS, AND DAUCUS GERMPLASM ENHANCEMENT, GENETICS, AND BIOCHEMISTRY

Location: Vegetable Crops Research Unit

Title: Genetic mapping of paternal sorting of mitochondria in cucumber

Authors
item Calderon, Claudia -
item Yandell, Brian -
item Havey, Michael

Submitted to: Theoretical and Applied Genetics
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: January 31, 2012
Publication Date: February 21, 2012
Citation: Calderon, C.I., Yandell, B.S., Havey, M.J. 2012. Genetic mapping of paternal sorting of mitochondria in cucumber. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 125:11-18.

Interpretive Summary: Mitochondria are organelles that have their own DNA; serve as the powerhouses of eukaryotic cells; play important roles in stress responses, programmed cell death, and ageing; and in the vast majority of eukaryotes, are maternally transmitted. Strict maternal transmission of mitochondria makes it difficult to select for better performing mitochondria, or against deleterious mutations in the mitochondrial DNA. Cucumber is a useful plant for organellar genetics because its mitochondria are paternally transmitted and it possesses one of the largest mitochondrial genomes among all eukaryotes. In cucumber, recombination among repetitive motifs in the mitochondrial DNA produces rearrangements associated with strongly mosaic (MSC) phenotypes and there is nuclear control of sorting among paternally transmitted mitochondrial DNAs. The goal of this project was to genetically map paternal sorting of mitochondria. We crossed single plants from plant introduction (PI) 401734 and C. sativus var. hardwickii and produced an F2 family. Each F2 plant was genotyped for molecular markers and testcrossed as the female with MSC16. Testcross families were scored for frequencies of wild-type versus MSC progenies. A major quantitative trait locus was mapped between two simple sequence repeats on chromosome 3. Sequencing of this region from PI 401734, together with improved annotation of the cucumber genome, should result in the eventual cloning of paternal sorting of mitochondria and provide insights about nuclear control of organellar-DNA sorting. This research will be useful to plant breeders and geneticists interested in improvement of the organellar genomes.

Technical Abstract: Mitochondria are organelles that have their own DNA; serve as the powerhouses of eukaryotic cells; play important roles in stress responses, programmed cell death, and ageing; and in the vast majority of eukaryotes, are maternally transmitted. Strict maternal transmission of mitochondria makes it difficult to select for better performing mitochondria, or against deleterious mutations in the mitochondrial DNA. Cucumber is a useful plant for organellar genetics because its mitochondria are paternally transmitted and it possesses one of the largest mitochondrial genomes among all eukaryotes. In cucumber, recombination among repetitive motifs in the mitochondrial DNA produces rearrangements associated with strongly mosaic (MSC) phenotypes and there is nuclear control of sorting among paternally transmitted mitochondrial DNAs. The goal of this project was to map paternal sorting of mitochondria as a step towards its eventual cloning. We crossed single plants from plant introduction (PI) 401734 and C. sativus var. hardwickii and produced an F2 family. Each F2 plant was genotyped for molecular markers and testcrossed as the female with MSC16. Testcross families were scored for frequencies of wild-type versus MSC progenies. Discrete segregations for percent wild-type progenies were not observed and paternal sorting of mitochondria was analyzed as a quantitative trait. A major quantitative trait locus (LOD 23) was mapped between two simple sequence repeats encompassing a 459-kb region on chromosome 3. Sequencing of this region from PI 401734, together with improved annotation of the cucumber genome, should result in the eventual cloning of paternal sorting of mitochondria and provide insights about nuclear control of organellar-DNA sorting.

Last Modified: 7/30/2014