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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: PHYTOCHEMICALS AND AGING: BIOAVAILABILITY, METABOLOMICS, AND BIOACTIVITY

Location: Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging

Title: Almond consumption improved glycemic control and lipid profiles in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

Authors
item Sing-Chung, Li -
item Yen-Hua, Liu -
item Wen-Hsin, Chang -
item Chiao-Ming, Chen -
item Chen, C.Y. Oliver -
item Jen-Fang, Liu -

Submitted to: Metabolism
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: April 12, 2010
Publication Date: April 1, 2011
Citation: Sing-Chung, L., Yen-Hua, L., Wen-Hsin, C., Chiao-Ming, C., Chen, C., Jen-Fang, L. 2011. Almond consumption improved glycemic control and lipid profiles in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolism. 60(4):474-479.

Interpretive Summary: Almond consumption is associated with ameliorations in obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and hyperglycemia. In this study, we examined whether almond consumption would improve glycemic control and decrease risk to cardiovascular disease in 20 Chinese type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM) patients with mildly increased blood cholesterol. T2DM patients were assigned to either a control NCEP step II diet (control diet) or almond diet for 4 wks. Almonds were added to the control diet to replace 20% of total daily calorie intake. Addition of approximately 60 g almonds/d increased dietary intakes of fiber, magnesium, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, and vitamin E. Body fat was significantly lower by approximately 1% in patients consuming almonds. Almond diet enhanced plasma vitamin E level by 23.3% as compared to control diet. Further, almond intake decreased total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol (bad cholesterol) by 5.4 and 11.2%, respectively. The T2DM patients consuming the almond diet had 3.9, 3.5, and 11.5% lower levels of fasting insulin and glucose and insulin resistance, respectively, than consuming control diet. Our results suggested that incorporation of almonds into a healthy diet has beneficial effects on body fat and blood glucose control and cholesterol, thereby potentially decreasing the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with type-2 diabetes.

Technical Abstract: Almond consumption is associated with ameliorations in obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and hyperglycemia. The hypothesis of this 12-wk randomized crossover clinical trial was that almond consumption would improve glycemic control and decrease risk to cardiovascular disease in 20 Chinese type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM) patients (9 M, 11 F; 58 yr; BMI: 26 kg/m2) with mild hyperlipidemia. After a 2-wk run-in period, T2DM patients were assigned to either a control NCEP step II diet (control diet) or almond diet for 4 wks with a 2-wk washout period between alternative diets. Almonds were added to the control diet to replace 20% of total daily calorie intake. Addition of approximately 60 g almonds/d increased dietary intakes of fiber, magnesium, PUFA, MUFA, and vitamin E. Body fat determined with bioelectrical impedance analysis was significantly lower in patients consuming almonds (almonds vs. control: 29.6 vs. 30.4%). Almond diet enhanced plasma alpha-tocopherol level by 23.3% (median: 26.8%; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 15.1, 36.6%) as compared to control diet. Further, almond intake decreased TC, LDL-C, and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio by 5.4 (median: 6.0%; 95% CI: 1.6, 9.4%), 11.2 (median: 11.6%; 95% CI: 2.8, 19.1%), and 9.1% (median: 9.7%; 95% CI: 0.3, 20.9%), respectively. Apoprotein-B level, ratio of Apoprotein B/Apoprotein-A1, and plasma nonesterified fatty acid was also decreased significantly by 17.1 (median: 15.6%; 95% CI: 5.1, 25.4%), 16.7 (median: 17.4%; 95% CI: 2.8, 19.9%), and 9.6% (median: 5.5%; 95% CI: 3.0, 14.4%), respectively. The T2DM patients consuming the almond diet had 3.9 (median: 4.1%; 95% CI: 0.9, 12.5%), 3.5% (median: 0.8%; 95% CI: 0.4, 6.3%), and 11.5% (median: 9.2%; 95% CI: 4.4, 13.2%) lower levels of fasting insulin and fasting glucose and HOMA-IR, respectively, when consuming control diet. Our results suggested that incorporation of almonds into a healthy diet has beneficial effects on adiposity, glycemic control, and the lipid profile, thereby potentially decreasing the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with type-2 diabetes.

Last Modified: 7/28/2014
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