Submitted to: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: August 1, 2011
Publication Date: May 31, 2012
Citation: Parnell, L.D. 2012. Advances in technologies and study design. In: Bouchard, C., Ordovas, J.M., editors. Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science. New York, NY: Elsevier Inc. 108:17-50. Technical Abstract: Completion of the initial draft sequence of the human genome was the proving ground for and has ushered in significant advancements in technology of increasing sophistication and ever increasing amounts of data. Often, this combination has a multiplicative effect of stimulating research groups to consider subsequent experiments of at least equal if not greater complexity often by employing advanced technologies. As applied to the fields of nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics, these advances in technology and experimental design allow researchers to probe for more detail into the biological, biochemical and physiological mechanisms underpinning the response to micro- and macro-nutrients along with downstream health effects. It is becoming ever more apparent that effects on gene expression as a consequence of genetic variation and perturbations to cellular and physiological systems are an important cornerstone to nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics research. A critical, near-term objective of nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics research, however, must be to determine where and how nutrients and their metabolites augment or disrupt the genetic variation-gene expression axis. Downstream effects on protein and metabolite measures are seen with growing regularity as vital components to this research. Thus, this chapter is meant to give a sense of the scope of recent progress and innovation in genomics and associated technologies and study design as applied to nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics research and to provide concrete examples of the application of those advancements in genomics oriented nutrition research.