|Suryawan, Agus -|
|Davis, Teresa -|
Submitted to: Frontiers in Bioscience
Publication Type: Review Article
Publication Acceptance Date: December 19, 2011
Publication Date: January 1, 2011
Citation: Suryawan, A., Davis, T.A. 2011. Regulation of protein synthesis by amino acids in muscle of neonates. Frontiers in Bioscience. 16:1445-1460. Technical Abstract: The marked increase in skeletal muscle mass during the neonatal period is largely due to a high rate of postprandial protein synthesis that is modulated by an enhanced sensitivity to insulin and amino acids. The amino acid signaling pathway leading to the stimulation of protein synthesis has not been fully elucidated. Among the amino acids, leucine is considered to be a principal anabolic agent that regulates protein synthesis. mTORC1, which controls protein synthesis, has been implicated as a target for leucine. Until recently, there have been few studies exploring the role of amino acids in enhancing muscle protein synthesis "in vivo". In this review, we discuss amino acid-induced protein synthesis in muscle in the neonate, focusing on current knowledge of the role of amino acids in the activation of mTORC1 leading to mRNA translation. The role of the amino acid transporters, SNAT2, LAT1,and PAT, in the modulation of mTORC1 activation and the role of amino acids in the activation of putative regulators of mTORC1, i.e., raptor, Rheb, MAP4K3, Vps34, and RagGTPases, are discussed.