|Kaluphahana, Nishan -|
|Moustaid-Moussa, Naima -|
Submitted to: Advances in Nutrition
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: May 3, 2011
Publication Date: July 1, 2011
Citation: Kaluphahana, N.S., Claycombe, K.J., Moustaid-Moussa, N. 2011. (n-3) Fatty acids alleviate adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance: Mechanistic insights. Advances in Nutrition. 2:304-316. Interpretive Summary: Obese humans and animals have elevated chronic inflammation that has been linked to development of heart disease, diabetes, and cancer. Increasing numbers of studies have shown that dietary omega-3 fatty acids reduce risk for of heart disease, diabetes, and cancer possibly by decreasing inflammatory responses in obese humans. With onset of obesity, fat tissue weight, fat tissue inflammatory cell number, and fat cell inflammatory function levels also increase resulting in an overall elevated systemic inflammation. This review article addresses fat tissue cellular mechanisms underlying inflammatory factor production with particular focus on diabetes and insulin resistance. Because omega-3 fatty acid decreases inflammation, this review will also provide an updates literature findings and discuss anti-inflammatory effects of omega-3 fatty acid and implications in human health.
Technical Abstract: Obesity is associated with the metabolic syndrome, a significant risk factor for developing type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. A chronic low-grade inflammation occurring in the adipose tissue of obese individuals is causally linked to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. While the exact trigger of this inflammatory process is hitherto unknown, adipose tissue hypoxia, endoplasmic reticular stress and saturated-fatty acid-mediated activation of innate immune processes have been identified as important processes in these disorders. Furthermore, macrophages and T lymphocytes have important roles in orchestrating this immune process. While caloric restriction leading to weight loss is the primary dietary intervention to reverse these obesity-associated metabolic disorders, other interventions targeted at alleviating adipose tissue inflammation have not been explored in detail. In this regard, omega-3 PUFA of marine origin both prevent and reverse high-fat diet-induced adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance in rodents. We provide an update on the pathogenesis of adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance in obesity and discuss potential mechanisms by which omega-3 PUFA prevent and reverse these changes and implications in human health.