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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: Improved Utilization of Ag. Products through Identification of Nitrogen-containing Bioactive Components Important to Quality & Human Health

Location: Healthy Processed Foods Research

Title: Elevation, rootstock, and soil depth affect the nutritional quality of mandarin oranges

Authors
item Zhang, Xiaotian -
item Breksa, Andrew
item Mishchuk, Darya -
item Slupsky, Carolyn -

Submitted to: Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: February 1, 2011
Publication Date: February 2, 2011
Repository URL: http://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/jf104335z
Citation: Zhang, X., Breksa Iii, A.P., Mishchuk, D.O., Slupsky, C.M. 2011. Elevation, rootstock, and soil depth affect the nutritional quality of mandarin oranges. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry. 59(1):2672–2679.

Interpretive Summary: The effects of elevation, rootstock, and soil depth on the nutritional quality of mandarin oranges from 11 groves in California were investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and applying multivariate statistical data analysis. The resulting statistical analysis showed that differences in rootstock, soil depth, and elevation influence the nutrient composition of fruit. This study highlights how NMR analysis coupled with multivariate statistical analysis can be used to illuminate the compositional characteristics of citrus, thereby aiding in the determination of the grove identity and fruit quality during orange production.

Technical Abstract: The effects of elevation, rootstock, and soil depth on the nutritional quality of mandarin oranges from 11 groves in California were investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy by quantifying 29 compounds and applying multivariate statistical data analysis. A comparison of the juice from oranges in groves with deeper soil and trifoliate rootstock versus those with shallow soil and C-35 rootstock revealed differences in the concentrations of 4-aminobutyrate, ethanol, phenylalanine, succinate, and isoleucine. A comparison of fruit from trees grown at higher versus lower elevation revealed that those at higher elevation had higher concentrations of amino acids, succinate, and 4-aminobutyrate and lower concentrations of sugars and limonin glucoside. Such differences indicate that rootstock, soil depth, and differences in elevation influence the fruit nutrient composition. This study highlights how metabolomics coupled with multivariate statistical analysis can illuminate the metabolic characteristics of citrus, thereby aiding in the determination of the grove identity and fruit quality during orange production.

Last Modified: 8/1/2014