Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: May 1, 2008
Publication Date: September 1, 2008
Citation: Sforza, R. 2008. Planthopper pests of grapevine (in French). Book Chapter. Les fulgoromorphes nuisibles à la vigne. In “Les ravageurs de la vigne” pp 169-180. Eds Feret, Bordeaux. p389.
In the French vineyards occur two main insect pests belonging to Fulgoromorpha, Hyalesthes obsoletus Signoret (Cixiidae) and Metcalfa pruinosa (Say) (Flatidae). Hyalesthes obsoletus is inducing economic losses by transmitting a phytoplasma, called Stolbur, from wild plants (bindweed, nettle, etc.) to grapevine. The so-called Bois noir disease was identified in France in the 1950’s and is now widespread in Europe. Control measures are difficult as the insect lives outside the vineyards and larvae overwinter on the roots on which they can acquire the phytoplasma particles. Metcalfa pruinosa is an invasive flatid, originating from North America, that was introduced into Europe in 1979. Living on more than 300 plants, M. pruinosa induces crop losses due to an intense production of honeydew deposited on green parts rapidly covered by a saprophytic fungus. Unlike H. obsoletus, M. pruinosa is not an insect vector. Biological control is an efficient strategy to limit its populations in Southern France where releases of a specific wasp, Neodryinus typhlocybae (Dryinidae), were conducted with success since 1996.