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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: MANURE MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES TO IMPROVE AIR AND WATER QUALITY

Location: Poultry Production and Products Safety Research

Title: Reducing ammonia emissions and volatile fatty acids in poultry litter with liquid aluminum chloride

Authors
item Choi, I -
item Choi, J -
item Moore, Philip

Submitted to: Journal of Environmental Science and Health
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: January 4, 2011
Publication Date: June 1, 2011
Citation: Choi, I.H., Choi, J.H., Moore Jr., P.A. 2011. Reducing ammonia emissions and volatile fatty acids in poultry litter with liquid aluminum chloride. Journal of Environmental Science and Health. 46:432-435.

Interpretive Summary: A pen trial was conducted to determine the effects of adding liquid aluminum chloride (AlCl3) to poultry litter on litter pH, total volatile fatty acids (VFAs), and ammonia (NH3) fluxes. Liquid AlCl3 was added to rice hulls at rates of 100 g, 200 g, and 300 g liquid AlCl3/kg; untreated rice hulls served as controls. Litter pH, total VFAs, and NH3 fluxes were reduced by all rates of aluminum chloride compared with controls. However, litter pH was not affected at the end of the study (from 3 to 5 weeks) or NH3 fluxes at beginning of the study (0 to 3 weeks). Total VFAs were reduced 16%, 29%, and 53% by 100 g liquid AlCl3/kg rice hulls, 200 g liquid AlCl3/kg rice hulls, and 300 g liquid AlCl3/kg rice hulls, respectively. Aluminum chloride additions reduced NH3 fluxes by 35%, 57% and 67%, respectively, at the low, medium and high rates. These results indicate that liquid aluminum chloride additions to rice hulls would be a useful tool in reducing the negative environmental impact of poultry litter. Reduced VFA production and NH3 volatilization was chiefly associated with reduction in litter pH.

Technical Abstract: This study was a pen trial in which the effects of adding different rates of liquid aluminum chloride (AlCl3) on litter pH, total volatile fatty acids (VFAs), and ammonia (NH3) fluxes was evaluated. Liquid AlCl3 treatments used in this study were sprayed on the rice hull surface at rates of 100 g, 200 g, and 300 g liquid AlCl3/kg rice hulls; untreated rice hulls served as controls. Litter pH, total VFAs, and NH3 fluxes were all lowered (P<0.05) by all of the liquid AlCl3 treatments compared with controls during certain times of the 5-week study. However, there were no significant differences among treatments on litter pH at the end of the study (from 3 to 5 weeks) or NH3 fluxes at beginning of the study (0 to 3 weeks). Total VFAs were reduced 16%, 29%, and 53% by 100 g liquid AlCl3/kg rice hulls, 200 g liquid AlCl3/kg rice hulls, and 300 g liquid AlCl3/kg rice hulls, respectively. Liquid AlCl3 additions reduced NH3 fluxes by 35%, 57%, and 67%, respectively, at the low, medium, and high rates. In summary, these results indicate that adding liquid aluminum chloride to rice hulls would be a useful tool in reducing the negative environmental impact of poultry litter. It should be noted that the decreased VFA production and NH3 volatilization was chiefly associated with reduction in litter pH.

Last Modified: 4/17/2014
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