Page Banner

United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: INTEGRATED INVASIVE SPECIES CONTROL, REVEGETATION, AND ASSESSMENT OF GREAT BASIN RANGELANDS

Location: Great Basin Rangelands Research

Title: Fire effects on the mobilization and uptake of nitrogen by cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.)

Authors
item Johnson, Britt -
item Johnson, Dale -
item Chambers, Jeanne -
item Blank, Robert

Submitted to: Plant and Soil
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: November 10, 2010
Publication Date: June 1, 2011
Citation: Johnson, B., Johnson, D., Chambers, J., Blank, R.R. 2011. Fire effects on the mobilization and uptake of nitrogen by cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.). Plant and Soil. 341:437-445.

Interpretive Summary: Cheatgrass, an invasive annual grass, is displacing native species and causing increased fire frequency in the Great Basin of the United States. Growth and nitrogen uptake patterns by cheatgrass were examined in a greenhouse study using soils from sites with the same soil type but different fire histories: 1) an area that burned in 1999 that is now completely invaded with cheatgrass (CG); 2) an area that has not burned recently and is now dominated by Wyoming big sagebrush and Sandberg’s bluegrass (WBS); and 3) a Wyoming big sagebrush area that burned in August of 2008 just prior to soil collection (NB). Cheatgrass seedlings had higher leaf numbers, height and mass in the NB soil. Ammonium-N mobilized by fire in the NB soil had significantly heavier 15N than soils from CG or WBS sites and this pattern was reflected in the isotopic signatures of the plants. Fire-mobilized mineral N accounted for only 58% of N taken up by cheatgrass in the NB soil, suggesting fire enhanced the ability of cheatgrass to assimilate more recalcitrant soil organic N.

Technical Abstract: Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.), an invasive annual grass, is displacing native species and causing increased fire frequency in the Great Basin of the southwestern United States. Growth and nitrogen uptake patterns by cheatgrass were examined in a greenhouse study using soils from sites with the same soil type but different fire histories: 1) an area that burned in 1999 that is now completely invaded with cheatgrass (CG); 2) an area that has not burned recently and is now dominated by Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentatassp.wyomingensis Beetle and Young) and Sandberg’s bluegrass (Poa secunda J. Presl) (WBS); and 3) a Wyoming big sagebrush area that burned in August of 2008 just prior to soil collection (NB). Cheatgrass seedlings had higher leaf numbers, height and mass in the NB soil. Ammonium-N mobilized by fire in the NB soil had significantly heavier 15N than soils from CG or WBS sites and this pattern was reflected in the isotopic signatures of the plants. Fire-mobilized mineral N accounted for only 58% of N taken up by cheatgrass in the NB soil, suggesting fire enhanced the ability of cheatgrass to assimilate more recalcitrant soil organic N.

Last Modified: 10/1/2014