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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: Integrated Aquatic Animal Health Strategies

Location: Aquatic Animal Health Research

Title: Thiamin requirement of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

Authors
item Lim, Chhorn
item Yildirim-Aksoy, Mediha -
item Barros, Margarida -
item Klesius, Phillip

Submitted to: Journal of the World Aquaculture Society
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: February 14, 2011
Publication Date: September 30, 2011
Repository URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/55630
Citation: Lim, C.E., Yildirim-Aksoy, M., Barros, M.M., Klesius, P.H. 2011. Thiamin requirement of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Journal of the World Aquaculture Society. 42:824-833.

Interpretive Summary: Thiamin or vitamin B1 is essential for growth and metabolism of all animals as well as of many plants and microorganisms. The quantitative dietary thiamin requirements have been determined for several fish species. However, no information is available on thiamin requirement of Nile tilapia. Thus, the following two experiments were conducted to determine the requirement of Juvenile Nile tilapia for dietary thiamin and its effect on growth performance, feed utilization efficiency, hematology, serum pyruvate and lactate, and whole body proximate composition. Juvenile Nile tilapia were fed to apparent satiation twice daily with purified diets containing 0, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0 and 16.0 mg/kg and 0. 2.0, 4.0, 8.0, 16.0 and 32.0 mg/kg of thiamin in separate 14-week (experiment 2) and 8-week feeding trials (experiment 2), respectively. In both trials, fish fed the diet devoid of thiamin supplementation developed neurological disorders, anorexia, reduced growth and feed efficiency and increased mortality within 4-6 and 8-10 weeks for experiments 2 (smaller fish) and 1, respectively. Low red blood cell count (RBC) and hematocrit (Ht) were observed in fish fed the thiamin deficient diet. In both studies, fish fed the thiamin unsupplemented diet had elevated serum pyruvate. Serum lactate was not affected by dietary thiamin levels. Whole body protein was not affected by dietary levels of thiamin. Body moisture and ash increased while body lipid decreased in fish fed the thiamin unsupplemented diets. None of these abnormalities were observed in fish fed the diets with added thiamin. Results of the present study indicated that a dietary thiamin level of 3.6 mg/kg diet was adequate for optimum growth, feed intake and efficiency and survival, prevention of neurological symptoms, and maintaining normal levels of RBC, Ht, serum pyruvate and proximate body composition.

Technical Abstract: Juvenile Nile tilapia were fed to apparent satiation twice daily with purified diets containing 0, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0 and 16.0 mg/kg and 0. 2.0, 4.0, 8.0, 16.0 and 32.0 mg/kg of thiamin in separate 14-week (experiment 1) and 8-week trials (experiment 2), respectively. Fish fed the diet devoid of thiamin developed neurological disorders, anorexia, reduced growth and feed efficiency and increased mortality (experiment 2 only) within 4-6 and 8-10 weeks for experiments 2 and 1, respectively. Low red blood cell count (experiment 1) and hematocrit (experiment 2) were observed in fish fed the thiamin deficient diet but white blood cell count and hemoglobin were not influenced by dietary levels of thiamin. In both studies, fish fed the thiamin unsupplemented diet had elevated serum pyruvate. Serum lactate was not affected by dietary thiamin levels. Whole body protein was not affected by dietary levels of thiamin. Body moisture and ash increased whereas body lipid decreased in fish fed the thiamin unsupplemented diets. None of these abnormalities were observed in fish fed the thiamin supplemented diets. Breakpoint analysis of various determined variables indicated that a dietary thiamin level of 3.6 mg/kg diet was adequate for optimum growth, feed intake and efficiency and survival, prevention of neurological symptoms, and maintaining normal levels of red blood cell count, hematocrit, serum pyruvate and proximate body composition.

Last Modified: 10/23/2014
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