Title: Phenolic compounds and seed oil characterization of Ziziphus Mauritiana L. fruit grown in Pakistan Authors
|Memon, Ayaz -|
|Menon, Najma -|
|Pitafi, Amanat -|
|Bhanger, Muhammad -|
Submitted to: Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: April 1, 2011
Publication Date: January 18, 2012
Citation: Memon, A.A., Menon, N., Luthria, D.L., Pitafi, A.A., Bhanger, M.I. 2012. Phenolic compounds and seed oil characterization of Ziziphus Mauritiana L. fruit grown in Pakistan. Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences. 62:15-21. Interpretive Summary: This paper describes phenolic compounds and seed oil characterization of ber, the fruit of the Ziziphus Mauritiana L. plant grown in Pakistan. The total phenolic content of the fruit was found to be 1.28 ± 0.01 g/100g gallic acid equivalent, with an antioxidant capacity of 50.40 ± 2.04 µmol/100g. The phenolic compounds identified in the ber extrat were hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillin, ortho- and para-coumaric acid, epicatechin, quercetin, and naringenin. The seed of Z. mauritiana L. is 38% oil, which is rich in unsaturated fat with gamma-tocopherol and stigmasterol as value-added compounds. The data presented in this manuscript will be of interest for the researchers, food producers, and nutrition professionals.
Technical Abstract: Ber is a tropical fruit which grows from the tree species, Ziziphus mauritiana Lamk. The pericarp of this fruit is consumed either fresh or dried while its seeds are usually discarded as waste. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of the fruit, and to evaluate the potential for value-added phytochemicals extracted from seed waste. The edible portion of the fruit was extracted with 60% aqueous methanol by sonication and then assayed for total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, and individual phenolic compounds by HPLC-DAD. Sugars and fatty acids were analyzed as TMS derivatives by GC-MS. The seed oil extracted with n-hexane was assayed for fatty acid composition, sterols, and tocopherol content by GC-MS. The total phenolic content of the fruit was found to be 1.28 ± 0.01 g/100 g gallic acid equivalent, with an antioxidant capacity of 50.40 ± 2.04 µmol/100g. Hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillin, ortho- and para-coumaric acid, epicatechin, quercetin, and naringenin were identified by matching retention time and UV spectra with those of commercial reference standards. GC-MS analysis of the TMS derivative of the fruit extract showed the presence of following compounds: propanoic, hexanoic, heptanoic, octanoic, nonanoic, decanoic, dodecanoic, n-pentadecanoic, hexadecanoic, benzoic, and trihydroxybenzoic acids. In addition, D-fructose, galactofuranoside, gluconic acid, D-gluconic acid, and ß-sitosterol were also detected. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis of trans-esterified oil showed the presence of the following FAMEs: hexanoic, octanoic, 7-octadecenoic, 9,12-octadecedienoic, eicosanoic, 11-eicosenoic, and docosanoic acid with 7-octadecenoic acid, making up 55% of total fatty acids. Squalene, gamma-tocopherol and stigmasterol were identified as minor constituents in the unsaponifiable fraction of oil. The seed of Z. mauritiana L. is comprised 38% of oil, which is rich in unsaturated fatty acids with gamma-tocopherol and stigmasterol as potential value-added compounds.