Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: September 1, 2010
Publication Date: August 8, 2011
Citation: He, Z., Olk, D.C. 2011. Manure amino acid compounds and their bioavailability. In: He, Z., editor. Environmental Chemistry of Animal Manure. New York, NY: Nova Science Publishers. p. 179-199. Technical Abstract: Amino acids (AA) have long been known to be present in animal manure. Amino acid compounds are widely presumed to be the primary pool of organic nitrogen (N) in soil, which provides nutrition for plant growth through N mineralization. Recent studies have also demonstrated some plants can directly take up soil AA. This chapter reviews existing knowledge on AA distribution in animal manures. Although there are 20 standard protein AA compounds, only 17 standard AA compounds are normally reported in most studies, due to the lability of asparagine, glutamine, and tryptophan under assay conditions. Published data demonstrate that manure AA distribution profiles are more or less similar to those of proteins. However, management practices such as animal feed source and manure composting did impact the levels of AA compounds in manure. Several studies have demonstrated that repeated application of animal manure impacts soil AA distribution. This impact is more complex than a simple accumulation, as microorganisms also play roles in cycling of manure AA compounds. As there have been only limited reports on the distribution of AA compounds in animal manure and manure-amended soils, this chapter is offered to help identify gaps in knowledge and to elucidate new research opportunities for evaluating bioavailability of manure AA in agricultural production.