ENHANCING SUSTAINABILITY OF FOOD PRODUCTION SYSTEMS IN THE NORTHEAST
Location: New England Plant, Soil and Water Research Laboratory
Title: Functional groups identified by solid state 13C NMR spectroscopy
Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: September 1, 2010
Publication Date: August 8, 2011
Citation: He, Z., Mao, J. 2011. Functional Groups identified by solid state 13C NMR spectroscopy. In: He, Z., editor. Environmental Chemistry of Animal Manure. New York, NY: Nova Science Publishers. p. 41-59.
Animal manure is generally high in organic matter intensity so it is well suitable for 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. Solid-state 13C NMR techniques used in characterizing organic matter and its components include, but are not limited to, cross-polarization /magic angle spinning (CPMAS), direct polarization/magic angle spinning (DPMAS), two-dimensional 1H–13C heteronuclear correlation (2D HETCOR), 13C chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) filter, and saturation pulse-induced dipolar exchange with recoupling (SPIDER). Roughly, 13C NMR signals can be assigned as alkyl, 0-40 ppm; NCH and OCH3, 41-60 ppm; O-alkyl, 61-105 ppm; aromatics, 106-150 ppm; aromatic C-O, 151-170 ppm; N-C=O and COO, 171-190 ppm; and ketone, quinone, or aldehyde C, 190-220 ppm. Although all these C functional groups have been found in animal manure samples, solid state 13C NMR studies reviewed in this chapter demonstrate that the relative intensity of these functional groups varied among types of manure, manure management practices and treatments (such as composting). Solid state 13C NMR spectroscopy has also provided detailed C bonding information of water extractable organic matter, humic-like, and other fractions of animal manure under various management and environmental conditions. Information synthesized in this chapter provides a state of the art assessment of our current knowledge of manure organic matter using solid state 13C NMR spectroscopy.