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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: SUNFLOWER GERMPLASM DIVERSIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION UTILIZING WILD SUNFLOWER SPECIES, CYTOGENETICS, AND APPLIED GENOMICS

Location: Sunflower Research

Title: Oil productivity and composition of sunflower as a function of hybrid and planting date

Authors
item Zheljazkov, Valtcho -
item Vick, Brady
item Baldwin, Brian -
item Buehring, Normie -
item Coker, Christine -
item Astatkie, Tess -
item Johnson, Billy -

Submitted to: Industrial Crops and Products
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: November 10, 2010
Publication Date: December 10, 2010
Repository URL: http://naldc.nal.usda.gov/catalog/49059
Citation: Zheljazkov, V.D., Vick, B.A., Baldwin, B.S., Buehring, N., Coker, C., Astatkie, T., Johnson, B. 2010. Oil productivity and composition of sunflower as a function of hybrid and planting date. Industrial Crops and Products. 33:537-543.

Interpretive Summary: Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is potential cash crop for the southeastern United States for production of cooking oil or biodiesel. Two years of experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of location, planting date, and hybrid on seed yield, oil content, and oil composition of sunflower. Seed oil concentration varied from 25 to 47%. The oleic acid concentration in the oil was above 85% for DKF3510 and PR64H41, above 65% for PR63M80 and PR63M91, and intermediate for the other hybrids. Total saturated fatty acids concentration in the oil ranged from 7.0 to 13.6%, with the high and mid-oleic hybrids having lower concentration of total saturated fatty acids than the other hybrids. Seed yields from the first and second planting dates ranged from 530 to 2889 kg ha-1, and calculated biodiesel production ranged from 195 to 928 kg ha-1. Seed and oil yields in this study suggest that sunflower in Mississippi should be planted by the last week of May for highest yields. Later planting (20 June) may significantly decrease both seed and oil yields in the rainfed system in Mississippi and in other areas of the southeastern United States with similar environmental conditions. The results indicate that, with appropriate agronomic practices, adequate yields of sunflower oil can be achieved in the Mississippi production region for refining for human consumption or for use in biodiesel production.

Technical Abstract: Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is potential cash crop for the southeastern United States for production of cooking oil or biodiesel. Two years of experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of location (five locations in Mississippi), planting date (April 20, May 20, and June 20), and hybrid (DKF3875, DKF2990, DKF3510, DKF3901, PR63M80, PR62A91, PR63A21, PR63M91, and PR64H41) on seed yield, oil content, and oil composition of sunflower. Seed oil concentration varied from 25 to 47%. The oleic acid concentration in the oil was above 85% for DKF3510 and PR64H41, above 65% for PR63M80 and PR63M91, and intermediate for the other hybrids. Total saturated fatty acids (TSFA) concentration in the oil (the sum of palmitic, stearic, arachidic, behenic, and lignoceric acids) ranged from 7.0 to 13.6%, with DKF3510, PR63M91, and PR64H41 having lower concentration of TSFA than the other hybrids. Seed yields from the first and second planting dates ranged from 530 to 2889 kg ha-1, and calculated biodiesel production ranged from 195 to 928 kg ha-1. Seed and oil yields in this study suggest sunflower in Mississippi should be planted by the last week of May. Later planting (20 June) may significantly decrease both seed and oil yields in the rainfed system in Mississippi and in other areas of the southeastern United States with similar environmental conditions.

Last Modified: 7/28/2014