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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: DEVELOPMENT OF SOYBEAN GENEOTYPES AND MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS FOR EARLY SEASON AND STRESS ENVIRONMENTS

Location: Crop Genetics Research Unit

Title: Soybean seed protein oil fatty acids and mineral composition as influenced by soybean-corn rotation

Authors
item Bellaloui, Nacer
item Bruns, Herbert
item Gillen, Anne
item Abbas, Hamed
item Zablotowicz, Robert
item Mengistu, Alemu
item Paris, Robert -

Submitted to: Journal of Agricultural Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: August 12, 2010
Publication Date: August 15, 2010
Citation: Bellaloui, N., Bruns, H.A., Gillen, A.M., Abbas, H.K., Zablotowicz, R.M., Mengistu, A., Paris, R.L. 2010. Soybean seed protein oil fatty acids and mineral composition as influenced by soybean-corn rotation. Journal of Agricultural Science. 1(3):102-109.

Interpretive Summary: Soybean seed is a major source of protein and oil. Seed quality is determined by the quantity and quality of protein, oil, and fatty acids. Effects of crop management on soybean seed composition (protein, oil, and fatty acids) in the Early Soybean Production System in the midsouth have not been well investigated . The Early Soybean Production System involves planting early maturity varieties in April to avoid frequent late summer drought. The objective of this research was to study the effects of soybean-corn rotation on seed protein, oil, fatty acids, and minerals. A field experiment was conducted at Stoneville, MS, from 2005 through 2008 using five different cropping sequences. In 2007, following three years of rotation with corn, seed composition yield (kg ha-1) was 18 % higher for protein, 4-8 % for oil, 14-17% for palmitic, 9-14% for stearic, 78-90% for oleic, and 2% for linoleic acids compared to seed from continuous soybean plots. In 2008, the increases from rotation with corn were 19-29 % for protein, 18-21 % for oil, 15-19% for palmitic, 19-25% for stearic, 51-85% for oleic, and 16-26 % for linoleic acids. Rotation with corn resulted in 10% to 13% increase in soybean seed yield in 2007 and 19% to 22 % in 2008 compared to continuous soybean. Seed oleic acid percentage was consistently higher in soybean-corn rotation compared to continuous soybean. Soybean seed oil with higher percentage of oleic acid and decreased linolenic acid is desired for increased oil stability. Significant increases in seed phosphorus, iron, boron, and nitrogen assimilation were also found, beginning of the second year of rotation. Although the mechanisms controlling the relationship between seed composition constituents and seed mineral have yet to be fully understood, the increase of these elements in soybean seed in rotation indicates a positive impact of rotation on soybean seed composition and mineral qualities. Since commercial and public breeders are working to genetically modify soybean to produce increased oleic acid and decreased linolenic acid in the oil, this knowledge may help understand the results of breeding lines and help select target location to grow new value-added soybeans when they are released.

Technical Abstract: Effects of crop rotation on soybean (Glycine max (L) Merr.) seed composition have yet to be thoroughly investigated. This study investigated the effects of soybean-corn (Zea mays L.) rotations on seed protein, oil, fatty acids, and mineral nutrient composition on soybean. The cultivar DBK 4651 was grown at Stoneville, MS, from 2005 to 2008 in five different cropping sequences. In 2007, following three years of rotation with corn, seed composition yield (kg ha-1) was 18 % higher for protein, 4-8 % for oil, 14-17% for palmitic, 9-14 for stearic, 78-90% for oleic, and 2% for linoleic acids compared to seed from continuous soybean plots. In 2008, the increases from rotation with corn were 19-29 % for protein, 18-21 % for oil, 15-19% for palmitic, 19-25 for stearic, 51-85% for oleic, and 16-26 % for linoleic acids. Rotation with corn resulted in 10% to 13% increase in soybean seed in 2007 and 19% to 22 % in 2008 compared to continuous soybean. Relative concentrations (%) of protein and oil were not consistent among years, but contrast analysis showed that oleic acid relative concentration was consistently higher in soybean-corn rotation compared to continuous soybean. In addition, significant increases in seed [P], [Fe], and [B], and a higher rate of nitrate reductase activity, (NRA) were also found, beginning of the second year of rotation. When seed composition constituents increased in a given rotation x year, significant increase in seed phosphorus (P), iron (Fe), and boron (B) concentrations, and a higher rate of nitrate reductase activity, (NRA) was observed. Although the mechanisms controlling the relationship between seed composition constituents and seed [P], [Fe], and [B] have yet to be fully understood, the increase of these elements in soybean seed in rotation indicates a positive impact of rotation on soybean seed composition and mineral qualities.

Last Modified: 7/31/2014