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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: FORAGE SYSTEMS FOR SUSTAINABLE ANIMAL PRODUCTION IN THE MID-SOUTH

Location: Forage-Animal Production Research

Title: Chemotais disruption in protylenchus scribneri by tall fescue root extracts and alkaloids

Authors
item Bacetty, Ada -
item Snook, Maurice -
item Glenn, Anthony -
item Noe, James -
item Nagabhyru, Padmaja -
item Bacon, Charles -

Submitted to: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: June 12, 2009
Publication Date: July 3, 2009
Citation: Bacetty, A.A., Snook, M.E., Glenn, A.E., Noe, J.P., Nagabhyru, P., Bacon, C.W. 2009. Chemotais disruption in protylenchus scribneri by tall fescue root extracts and alkaloids. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 35:844-850.

Interpretive Summary: Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) forms a symbiotic relationship with the clavicipitalean fungal endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum. Endophyte-infected grass is tolerant to nematode, but the factors responsible are unknown. One objective of this work was to determine if root extracts of tall fescue effected chemoreceptor activity of Pratylenchus scribneri by using an in vitro chemoreception bioassay. Another objective was to determine if specific ergot alkaloids (ergovaline, ergotamine, a-ergocryptine, ergonovine), and loline alkaloids, all produced by the fungal endophyte, altered chemotaxis with this bioassay. Methanolic extract from roots altered chemotaxis activities in this nematode but only from roots of plants cultured 45 = d, which repelled nematodes. Extracts prepared from noninfected grasses were attractants. This assay indicated that the alkaloids were either repellents or attractants. N-formylloline was an attractant at concentrations of 20 µg/ml and lower, while at higher concentrations it was a repellent. Ergovaline, the major ergot alkaloid produced by the endophyte, was repellent at both high and low concentrations and caused complete death of the nematodes.

Technical Abstract: Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) forms a symbiotic relationship with the clavicipitalean fungal endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum. Endophyte-infected grass is tolerant to nematode, but the factors responsible are unknown. One objective of this work was to determine if root extracts of tall fescue effected chemoreceptor activity of Pratylenchus scribneri by using an in vitro chemoreception bioassay. Another objective was to determine if specific ergot alkaloids (ergovaline, ergotamine, a-ergocryptine, ergonovine), and loline alkaloids, all produced by the fungal endophyte, altered chemotaxis with this bioassay. Methanolic extract from roots altered chemotaxis activities in this nematode but only from roots of plants cultured 45 = d, which repelled nematodes. Extracts prepared from noninfected grasses were attractants. This assay indicated that the alkaloids were either repellents or attractants. N-formylloline was an attractant at concentrations of 20 µg/ml and lower, while at higher concentrations it was a repellent. Ergovaline, the major ergot alkaloid produced by the endophyte, was repellent at both high and low concentrations and caused complete death of the nematodes.

Last Modified: 10/1/2014