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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: BIOACTIVE FOOD COMPONENTS AND MODULATION OF ATHEROSCLEROSIS AND ANGIOGENESIS

Location: Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging

Title: Preset trends in vitamin E research

Authors
item Galli, Francesco -
item Azzi, Angelo -

Submitted to: Biofactors
Publication Type: Review Article
Publication Acceptance Date: January 2, 2010
Publication Date: January 27, 2010
Citation: Galli, F., Azzi, A. 2010. Preset trends in vitamin E research. Biofactors. 36:33-42.

Technical Abstract: After near one century of research and thousands of publications, the physiological function(s) of vitamin E remain unclear. Available evidence suggests a role in cell homeostasis that occurs through the modulation of specific signaling pathways and genes involved in proliferative, metabolic, inflammatory and antioxidant pathways. Vitamin E presence in the human body is under close metabolic control so that only alpha-tocopherol and, to a lower extent, gamma-tocopherol are retained and delivered to tissues. Other vitamin E forms that are not retained in the body in significant amounts, exhibit responses in vitro that are different form those of alpha-tocopherol and may include tumor cell specific toxicity and apoptosis. These responses provide a therapeutic potential for these minor forms, either as such or metabolically modified, to produce bioactive metabolites. These cellular effects go beyond the properties of lipophilic antioxidant attributed to alpha-tocopherol particularly investigated for its alleged protective role in atherosclerosis or other oxidative stress conditions. Understanding signaling and gene expression effects of vitamin E could help assign a physiological role to this vitamin, which will be discussed in this review. Besides vitamin E signaling, attention will be given to tocotrienols as one of the emerging topics in vitamin E research and a critical re-examination of the most recent clinical trials will be provided together with the potential use of vitamin E in disease prevention and therapy.

Last Modified: 10/1/2014