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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: IMPROVEMENT OF PEST RESISTANCE AND QUALITY TRAITS OF SOYBEAN

Location: Corn, Soybean and Wheat Quality Research Unit

Title: Detached Leaf and Whole Plant Assays for Soybean Aphid (Aphis glycines) Resistance Show Differential Reponses among Resistance Sources and Biotypes

Authors
item Michel, Andrew -
item Mian, Rouf
item Olivas, Nelson Horacia -

Submitted to: Journal of Economic Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: April 6, 2010
Publication Date: June 1, 2010
Repository URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10113/43078
Citation: Michel, A.P., Mian, R.M., Olivas, N.D. 2010. Detached Leaf and Whole Plant Assays for Soybean Aphid (Aphis glycines) Resistance Show Differential Reponses among Resistance Sources and Biotypes. Journal of Economic Entomology. 103:949-957.

Interpretive Summary: The soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) is the number one insect pest of cultivated soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in North America. At least 4 soybean aphid resistance genes (Rag1-4) and 2 soybean aphid biotypes (Biotype-I, II), as defined by differential survivability on resistant soybean lines. We tested detached soybean leaves as a more rapid and practical test to assess host-plant resistance and biotype determinations. We used 2 susceptible lines (Wyandot and Williams 82) and 2 resistant soybean lines (PI 243540 and PI 567301B). Resistance was tested by placing one aphid on both a whole plants and a detached leaf placed within a petri dish. Various survival characteristics were measured. Results indicated that resistance to soybean aphid was lost using detached leaves of PI 567301B but retained with PI 243540. To test for virulence, we compared net fecundities of Biotype-I (B-I) and Biotype-II (B-II) on detached leaves of the resistant cultivar Jackson (to which B-II is virulent). We detected a significant difference among soybean aphids collected from Ohio fields. No field individuals matched B-II predictions, but 4 individuals had higher virulence than B-I predictions (13%), and could be considered moderately virulent. Our results indicated that the retention of soybean aphid resistance in detached leaves is dependent on source of resistance, but could be used to determine soybean aphid virulence

Technical Abstract: The soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) is an invasive pest of cultivated soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in North America. Recent developments in host-plant resistance studies have identified at least 4 soybean aphid resistance genes (Rag1-4) and 2 soybean aphid biotypes (Biotype-I, II), defined by differential survivability on resistant soybean. We tested detached soybean leaves as a more rapid and practical test to assess host-plant resistance and biotype determinations. We used 2 susceptible lines (Wyandot and Williams 82) and 2 resistant lines (PI 243540 and PI 567301B). Resistance was tested by placing one aphid on both whole plants and a detached leaf placed within a petri dish. Various life history characteristics were measured including percent mortality, fecundity, and life expectancy. Results indicated that resistance to soybean aphid was lost using detached leaves of PI 567301B but retained with PI 243540. To test for virulence, we compared net fecundities of Biotype-I (B-I) and Biotype-II (B-II) on detached leaves of the resistant cultivar Jackson (to which B-II is virulent). We detected a significant difference in net fecundities among B-I and B-II on detached leaves of Jackson, and used predicted growth rates to determine virulence from 30 field collected individuals. No field individuals matched B-II predictions, but 4 individuals had higher net fecundities than B-I predictions (13%), and could be considered moderately virulent. Our results indicated that the retention of soybean aphid resistance in detached leaves is dependent on source of resistance.

Last Modified: 10/1/2014
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