Submitted to: International Conference on Methyl Bromide Alternatives and Emissions Reductions
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: September 21, 2009
Publication Date: November 13, 2009
Citation: Gao, G., R. Qin, B. Hanson, D. Wang, G. Browne, and J. Gerik. 2009. Measurement and assessment of field emission reductions. International Conference on MeBr Alternatives and Emission Reductions. November 10-13, 2009, San Diego, CA. In 2009 Ann. Int. Res. Conf. on MeBr Alternatives and Emission Reductions, San Diego, Nov. 10-13, 2009. p. 9-1 to 9-3. Interpretive Summary: Low missions from pre-plant soil fumigation are required towards fumigant use and future availability to important commodities. Emission monitoring has been carried out in 2007 and 2008 as part of the USDA-ARS Pacific Area-Wide (PAW) Pest Management Program for Integrated Methyl Bromide Alternatives. The monitoring benefits important industry sectors including perennial nursery, almond/stone fruits and grapevine orchards. Total six field trials were conducted from soil fumigation with either shank injection or subsurface drip application of Telone products. Emission reduction was determined for various application methods and surface sealing methods (tarp or water treatments). The data conclude that the virtually impermeable film (VIF) reduced emissions the most with >90% emission reduction for both broadcast shank injection and subsurface drip application. Some difficulties were observed in the tarp installation indicating the needs for testing more flexible films. Subsurface spot-drip also gave very low emissions in terms of percentage of applied and especially when considering its treatment area being <10% of a field. The information is valuable for both growers and policy-makers/regulatory agencies.
Technical Abstract: Emission assessment from pre-plant soil fumigation has been an important component for the USDA-ARS Pacific Area-Wide (PAW) Pest Management Program for Integrated Methyl Bromide Alternatives. Emission monitoring was carried out in 2007 and 2008 for three PAW projects (industry sectors including perennial nursery, almond/stone fruits and grapevine orchards). Three field trials were conducted each year from soil fumigation with either shank injection of Telone II or Telone C35 or drip application of InLine. In addition to testing different application methods (e.g., shank vs. subsurface drip, standard shank vs. modified Buessing shank, broadcast application vs. strip-shank or spot-drip application at planting site), various surface sealing methods (tarp or water treatments) were determined for their emission reductions. The data conclude that the virtually impermeable film (VIF) reduced emissions the most with >90% emission reduction compared to HDPE tarp or post-fumigation water treatment. This technique worked effectively for both broadcast shank injection and subsurface drip application and has the great potential to improve efficacy. The VIF also has a great potential to improve soil-borne disease control because of its ability to retain high fumigant concentration under the tarp. Some difficulties in the tarp installation indicate the needs for testing more flexible films. Subsurface spot-drip also gave very low emissions especially when considering its reduced treatment area being <10% of a field. This research has provided essential field information for growers and policy-makers/regulatory agencies as well as the PAW program for further research needs on emission reductions.