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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: GENETIC IMPROVEMENT OF CITRUS Title: Genetic structure and differentiation in cultivated fig (Ficus carica L.)

Authors
item Aradhya, Mallikarjuna
item Stover, Ed
item Velasco, Diane -
item Koehmstedt, Anne -

Submitted to: Genetica
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: March 10, 2010
Publication Date: June 1, 2010
Citation: Aradhya, M.K., Stover, E.W., Velasco, D., Koehmstedt, A. 2010. Genetic structure and differentiation in cultivated fig (Ficus carica L.). Genetica. 138:681-694

Interpretive Summary: One hundred ninety-four germplasm accessions of fig in the Davis, California Germplasm Repository were analyzed for genetic diversity, and relatedness using 17 DNA markers. Accession relatedness analysis showed that the fig accessions clustered into ten groups with 32 instances in which the same genotype was present under multiple names. The long history of domestication and cultivation with extensive dispersal of cultivars with many synonyms has resulted in a great deal of confusion in the identification and classification of cultivars in fig. It is evident that fig accessions from Turkmenistan are somewhat genetically different from the rest of the Mediterranean and the Caucasus figs.

Technical Abstract: One hundred ninety-four germplasm accessions of fig representing the four fig types, Common, Smyrna, San Pedro, and Caprifig were analyzed for genetic diversity, structure, and differentiation using genetic polymorphism at 17 microsatellite loci. The collection showed considerable polymorphism with observed number of alleles per locus ranging from four for LMFC14, LMFC31 and LMFC35 to nine for LMFC30 with an average of 4.9 alleles per locus. Eight of the 17 loci assayed exhibited significant deviation from panmixia, of which three showed excess and five showed deficiency of heterozygotes. The cluster analysis revealed ten groups and 32 instances of synonymy among cultivars and groups differed significantly for frequency and composition of alleles for different loci. Nevertheless, the gene diversity analysis indicated that much of the total variation is found within groups (HG/HT = 83.3%) and among groups within total component (GGT) accounted for the remaining 16.7%, of which ~10% accounted for among groups within clusters (GGC)and 6.4% among clusters (GCT), and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed similar results. Overall, the gene pool of cultivated fig analyzed possesses substantial genetic polymorphism but exhibits narrow differentiation. It is evident that fig accessions from Turkmenistan are somewhat genetically different from the rest of the Mediterranean and the Caucasus figs. The long history of domestication and cultivation with extensive dispersal of cultivars with many synonyms has resulted in a great deal of confusion in the identification and classification of cultivars in fig.

Last Modified: 10/20/2014
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