ALLIUM, CUCUMIS, AND DAUCUS GERMPLASM ENHANCEMENT, GENETICS, AND BIOCHEMISTRY
Location: Vegetable Crops Research Unit
Title: Molecular Characterization of Kastamonu Garlic: An Economically Important Garlic Clone in Turkey
Submitted to: Scientia Horticulturae
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: September 4, 2007
Publication Date: January 7, 2008
Citation: Ipek, M., Ipek, A., Simon, P.W. 2008. Molecular Characterization of Kastamonu Garlic: An Economically Important Garlic Clone in Turkey. Scientia Horticultureae. 115(2):203-208.
Interpretive Summary: Turkey is a major grower and exporter of garlic, and several types of Turkish garlic grown are considered to be genetically unique from other garlics grown around the world. In this study, molecular genetic markers were used to compare Turkish garlic from several regions (but in particular Kastamonu) with a global collection of garlic. Results indicated that Turkish garlics are not unique, but similar to garlic from central Europe. While only one garlic type was thought to be grown, these studies indicated that, in fact, a mixture of several garlics was being used by Turkish growers. These studies are of interest to garlic industry and to researchers studying crop diversity.
This study was conducted to assess genetic relationship of Kastamonu garlic, which is very popular in Turkey due to its high quality features, along with some previously characterized garlic clones collected from different regions of the world using AFLP and locus specific DNA markers. UPGMA cluster analysis was performed using 120 polymorphic AFLP markers. One putative Kastamonu garlic genotype obtained from a farmer in Taskopru district of Kastamonu province and called as Kast-Taskopru in this study, clustered closely over 97% similarity with other garlic clones defined as non-bolting types in UPGMA dendrogram. The clones in this cluster also shared same alleles of locus specific DNA markers. Another putative Kastamonu garlic genotype, obtained from a local farmer market in Bursa province and named as Kast-Bursa in this study, however, shared 100% polymorphic AFLP markers and locus specific markers with different clone in another distinct cluster of UPGMA dendrogram. These results suggest that Kastamonu garlic is not unique and garlic production in Turkey used several using different garlic clones, but even though most of this production has been sold as Kastamonu garlic due to its high popularity. Therefore, a standard Kastamonu garlic genotype needs to be determined by fingerprinting all available garlic clones cultivated in Kastamonu province and other regions of Turkey.